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Extra Credit: What is the relevance of archaeology to today’s issues? - Worth up to 8 points added to high grade of test 1 & 2; - 500 words maximum -Open.

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Presentation on theme: "Extra Credit: What is the relevance of archaeology to today’s issues? - Worth up to 8 points added to high grade of test 1 & 2; - 500 words maximum -Open."— Presentation transcript:

1 Extra Credit: What is the relevance of archaeology to today’s issues? - Worth up to 8 points added to high grade of test 1 & 2; - 500 words maximum -Open by a statement of how many classes you have missed and why you deserve extra-credit -Due: Tuesday (4/27) Some possible themes: - Long-term change of human groups, including dynamics of humans- environment (ecological/climate change and disaster); -Culture & Civilization as adaptations to environment, demography and other factors, rather than simply achievements of only some people; -Archaeology defines what constitutes civilization and provides novel instances of human achievements; -Understanding and valorizing cultural diversity


3 Cultural and biological adaptations to highland Andean Environments: more blood that is more viscous and richer in red cells, a heart that is proportionately larger, and specially adapted, larger lungs, with an enhanced capacity to take in oxygen from the thin atmosphere. Terraced and irrigation agriculture, specialized crops, drought resistance, coca chewing to reduce fatigue and metabolize carbohydrates, providing greater energy

4 Late Preceramic: 3000 to 1800 BC Initial (ceramic) Period: 1800 to 400 BC Three Horizon and Two Intermediate Periods Early Horizon (Integration): 400 to 200 BC Early Intermediate (Regionalism): 200 BC to AD 650 Middle Horizon (Integration): AD 650-1000 Late Intermediate (Regionalism): AD 1000-1476 Late Horizon (Inka; integration): AD 1476-1533 Chronology of Central Andes

5 Late Preceramic “The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization” (Moseley 1975): “Maritime Hypothesis” -Rich marine resources provided basis for early settled communities and complex societies, such as Caral, Aspero, and El Paraiso, On Peru’s desert coast - Ample evidence of Industrial crops (cotton, Gourds, reeds) but less Evidence of food crops - Also, El Nino (natural disaster) and drought

6 Caral The first urban center in the Americas, covers 66 ha (163 acres); by 2400 BC it was the capital of a regional polity in the Supe River, with various temple structures facing a central plaza, the largest of which, the “Piramide Mayor” was 160x150 m (525x492 ft) and 18 m (59 ft) high.

7 Caral’s Amphitheater

8 El Paraiso

9 Aspero, with six substantial platforms up to 8 m (18ft) high, surrounded by 15 ha (37 acres) of deep refuse. Uppermost levels of two platforms date to ca. 3000-2500 BC Late Preceramic U-shaped

10 Initial Period ceremonial complex at Sechin Alto, includes the largest monument in the Americas for this time (1800 BC) After a millennium of agricultural expansion, several centuries of drought was an important factor in the abandonment of these centers, after 800 BC U-shaped temple Sunken circular Courts/plazas

11 Cerro Sechin Temple shows ample evidence of warfare

12 Chankillo, ca, 400 BC

13 Chavín de Huantar Early Horizon

14 The main complex of masonry buildings, called the Castillo, composed of (a) New Temple and (c) Old Temple U-shaped plaza and sunken circular courtyard The “Lanzon” in the subterranean Gallery (b) U-shaped plaza with sunken circular courtyard

15 The “Staff God” Chavin art and iconography, the Chavin “cult,” spread throughout much of Central Andes in the Early Horizon, although uncertain degree of political and economic integration

16 Paracas, South-Central Coast Necropolis of elite burials in subterranean vaults with elaborate mummy bundles and exquisite fabrics in dazzling colors

17 Gallinazo Group, vast sprawl of collapsed adobe brick buildings, estimated to contain some 30,000 rooms and compartments Early Intermediate Period: Gallinazo Culture in northern Peru, notable for platform mounds and extensive irrigation in coastal river valleys

18 The Moche of northern coastal Peru

19 Extremely elaborate art and iconography that provides details on diverse aspects of Moche culture Painted murals from the Huaca del Luna

20 Moche rulers lived in opulent residences atop the Huaca del Sol, which measured 340 x 160 m (1115 x 525 ft) and over 40 m (130 ft), one of the largest mounds ever constructed in South America Adobe bricks used in construction of the Huaca del Sol had “makers marks” that identified communities of corvée laborers

21 Marching prisoners Painted murals at El Brujo

22 'blackened residue' in a Moche goblet was human blood (Bourget and Newman, 1998) The “Presentation Theme” Moche ideological themes expressed in iconography include battle between supernatural beings, death and burial of a king, and teams of kuraka (elite) warriors

23 Moche elite (kuraka) burial at Sipán

24 Moche semi-divine warrior king Throughout Andean civilization, kuraka class ruled as divine intermediaries between heaven and earth A massive El Nino flood and drought between AD 562-594 diminished the power and integration of the Moche state, which disappeared ca. AD 700-800

25 The Nazca polity (south coast) was relatively small in population, but produced ‘geoglyphs,’ which have caused wild speculation, and include >1000 km of straight lines, >300 geometric figures, and dozens of animal figures


27 Tiwanaku

28 The Gateway of the Sun at Tiwanaku; with staff-god (similar to Early Horizon Chavin deity), cut from a single block of stone

29 Ruling kuraka at Tiwanaku stressed imposing temple mounds, gateways, and stelae, which were eschewed by their northern Wari neighbors, although Wari came to adopt Tiwanaku pantheon Faith in both religion and government was undermined after ca. AD 1050, after several centuries of drier climate (drought)

30 Contact and interaction between upland Wari center of Cerro Baul and mid-valley Tiwanaku center of Omo in the Moquequa valley

31 Reed boat in Lake Titicaca

32 Rectangular compounds, or ciudadelas, at Chan Chan, capital city of the Chimor empire, the second largest empire in pre-Columbian Americas, which was subjugated by Inca ca. 1470 LATE INTERMEDIATE: CHIMOR Taycanamu: semi-mythical ancestral founder of Chan Chan who arrived by sea

33 Chimor's paramount rulers, who probably ruled as god-kings, lived in enormous enclosures called ciudadelas and held court in rooms called audiencias

34 At the time of European contact, the whole Andean area was under the control of the Inca empire The Inca empire or “Land of the Four Quarters” (Tawantinsuyu) had four major geographical territories, known as suyu, composed of 80 political provinces. It was linguistically diverse, but used a lingua franca called Runa Simi (Quechua). The Inca traced their foundation to a venerated ancestor named Manco Capac, but the expansion of the Inca empire was initiated by Pachacuti, the seventh potentate, and his son and grandson LATE HORIZON: INCA

35 The capital city of Cuzco, the navel of the universe, was constructed in the shape of a Puma. It was dominated by the temple-fortress of Sacsahuaman and the residences of royal lineages (kanchas), the most opulent of which was the Coricancha, with a gold-bedecked “House of the Sun” and silver adorned temple of the moon Sacsahuaman

36 Sacsahuaman, fort-like temple crowning the heights of the imperial capital; made by a rotating force of 20,000 corvée laborers over several decades

37 The ceque system

38 Inca writing: the khipu

39 30,000 to 40,000 km (18,600-24,800 miles) of thoroughfares and trunk lines

40 Machu Picchu Inca road

41 Inca bridges Inca tunnel

42 Inca political economy depended on agricultural taxation, textile tribute, work draft (corvée labor) and required tribute from both men and women Andean peoples, like the Inca, developed both cultural and biological adaptations to the high elevations of the Andes, such as terraced agriculture, irrigation, heightened lung capacity, greater amounts of red-blood cells, and chewing coca with quinoa, to deal with fatique

43 Machu Picchu, the Versailles-like rural palace and estate made by the emperor Pachacuti, was rediscovered by American archaeologist Hiram Bingham in 1911

44 The Inca emperor was decimated by a smallpox pandemic in the 1520s, which triggered a seven-year civil war between rival claimants to the throne. As Atahualpa marched south to claim Cuzco, he was intercepted, kidnapped, ransomed, and killed by Francisco Pizarro’s forces.

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