Presentation on theme: "Civilizations of the Andes Chavίn Moche Wari and Tiwanaku."— Presentation transcript:
Civilizations of the Andes Chavίn Moche Wari and Tiwanaku
Civilizations of the Andes What do we know about the geography?
Geography and Food The deserts only supported human habitation because of rivers… – Rivers provided irrigation and cultivation Location near the Pacific Ocean Birds and Fish Seafood from the coastal region; cotton from lower-altitude valley; potatoes, quinoa, and pasture land for llamas in the high plains; tropical fruit and coca from the eastern slope
Civilizations of South America First Wave Civilization= Notre Chico:3000 BCE Second Wave Civilizations: – Chavin: 1200 BCE- 200 BCE – Moche: 200 BCE-800 CE – flourished 100 CE- 700 CE – Nazca: ?- 600 CE – Wari: 400 CE CE – Tiwanaku: 400 CE CE – Huari: 650 CE0 800 CE – Chimu: 600 CE CE – Inca: 1476 CE CE
Chavίn (cha-BEEN) 900 BCE – 200 BCE: became the center of a religious movement – Chavίn de Huántar Location – coastal and highland Peru Strategic location to trade routes Why would trade routes be so important to Chavίn?
Chavίn (cha-BEEN) Architecture – the Elite class Elaborate temple complex – galleries, hidden passageways, staircases, ventilation, drainage canals (technology) Artwork – influenced from both the desert coastal regions and the rainforests – major deities represented as jaguars, crocodiles, and snakes (art and religion) Shamans – San Pedro cactus – hallucinogenic properties – used to communicate with the supernatural world
Chavίn (cha-BEEN) Spread of religion across Peru and beyond – how do we know? Architecture, sculpture, pottery, religious images – imitated within the region Chavίn became pilgrimage cite and training center No “empire” emerged – it was a widespread religious cult based on a trading network
Chavίn (review) N. Peru Farming society Different regional groups Main town was probably a pilgrimage site
Moche (MOH-chee) 100 CE – 800 CE Location – Peru’s northern coast – incorporated 13 river valleys Economy dependent on irrigation systems – constant maintenance – channeled snow runoff from the Andes Grew – maize, beans, squash – used water and guano Fishermen – anchovies in the Pacific
Where is Moche?
Moche (MOH-chee) Politically – governed by warrior-priests Lived in pyramids – largest had 143 million sundried bricks Shaman-rulers – often under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs – conducted rituals and mediated between the humankind and the gods Ritual Sacrifice of human victims – most prisoners of war – this was the central concept to the politico-religious life – Decapitation and dismemberment was represent on pottery
Moche (MOH-chee) Moche was based on war, ceremony and diplomacy Wealth of the warrior-priest elite – elaborate burials of the rulers – Lord of Sipan Craftspeople – metal workers, potters, weavers, painters, farmers, fishermen, traders, construction workers – little is known about the daily life of these workers
The Lord of Sipan
What it could’ve looked like…
Moche Review 200 BCE- 700 CE Northern Peru 2000 separate settlements Created irrigation systems Royal tombs show social classes – Lord, buried in shrouds and covered in jewels – Surrounded by servants and animals – Llamas, a dog, and a snake – Paintings show priests in warfare and performing human sacrifices on the prisoners Moche left around 600 CE and no one knows why
Wari and Tiwanaku 400 CE – 1000 CE Interior empires Wari – northern highlands of the Andes Tiwanaku – southern part of the Andes Both centered on large urban capitals, monumental architecture, and large populations Both governments collected surplus food – incase of drought and famine Neither controlled a continuous band of territory
Wari and Tiwanaku Both developed vertical empires Colonies at lower levels on the eastern and western slopes of the Andes Food – seafood, maize, chili peppers, cocoa, hallucinogenic plants Caravans of llama linked distant centers – allowed for trade
Wari VS Tiwanaku Agriculture – – Wari = hillside terracing, snowmelt from Andes – Tiwanaku = “raised field” – elevated planting areas separated by small irrigation canals Architecture - – Wari = tombs and temples were built of field stone – Tiwanaku = elaborate fitted stone walls and buildings City organization – – Wari = built to a common plan, linked to capital by highways – Tiwanaku = not as tightly control compared to Wari
Wari VS Tiwanaku Shared 300 mile border Little conflict between the two, or interaction Spoke own languages, different clothes, different gods Capitals were the base of their civilizations Following their collapse were a series of smaller Andean kingdoms – one which became the Inca Empire – used technology and architecture from the Wari and Tiwanaku. Inca claimed Tiwanaku as their origin. Fall of American empires came with the invasions of the Europeans in the 1400’s
Discussion Questions: What kind of influence did Chavin exert in the Andes region? What features of Moche life characterize it as a civilization? What was the significance of Wari and Tiwanaku in the history of the Andean Civilization?