Presentation on theme: "Civilizations of the Andes"— Presentation transcript:
1Civilizations of the Andes ChavίnMocheWari and Tiwanaku
2Civilizations of the Andes What do we know about the geography?
3Geography and FoodThe deserts only supported human habitation because of rivers…Rivers provided irrigation and cultivationLocation near the Pacific OceanBirds and FishSeafood from the coastal region; cotton from lower-altitude valley; potatoes, quinoa, and pasture land for llamas in the high plains; tropical fruit and coca from the eastern slope
4Civilizations of South America First Wave Civilization= Notre Chico:3000 BCESecond Wave Civilizations:Chavin: 1200 BCE- 200 BCEMoche: 200 BCE-800 CE – flourished 100 CE- 700 CENazca: ?- 600 CEWari: 400 CE CETiwanaku: 400 CE CEHuari: 650 CE0 800 CEChimu: 600 CE CEInca: 1476 CE CE
5Chavίn (cha-BEEN)900 BCE – 200 BCE: became the center of a religious movement – Chavίn de HuántarLocation – coastal and highland PeruStrategic location to trade routesWhy would trade routes be so important to Chavίn?
6Chavίn (cha-BEEN) Architecture – the Elite class Elaborate temple complex – galleries, hidden passageways, staircases, ventilation, drainage canals (technology)Artwork – influenced from both the desert coastal regions and the rainforests – major deities represented as jaguars, crocodiles, and snakes (art and religion)Shamans – San Pedro cactus – hallucinogenic properties – used to communicate with the supernatural world
7Chavίn (cha-BEEN)Spread of religion across Peru and beyond – how do we know? Architecture, sculpture, pottery, religious images – imitated within the regionChavίn became pilgrimage cite and training centerNo “empire” emerged – it was a widespread religious cult based on a trading network
8Chavίn (review) N. Peru Farming society Different regional groups Main town was probably a pilgrimage site
9Moche (MOH-chee) 100 CE – 800 CE Location – Peru’s northern coast – incorporated 13 river valleysEconomy dependent on irrigation systems – constant maintenance – channeled snow runoff from the AndesGrew – maize, beans, squash – used water and guanoFishermen – anchovies in the Pacific
11Moche (MOH-chee) Politically – governed by warrior-priests Lived in pyramids – largest had 143 million sundried bricksShaman-rulers – often under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs – conducted rituals and mediated between the humankind and the godsRitual Sacrifice of human victims – most prisoners of war – this was the central concept to the politico-religious lifeDecapitation and dismemberment was represent on pottery
12Moche (MOH-chee) Moche was based on war, ceremony and diplomacy Wealth of the warrior-priest elite – elaborate burials of the rulersLord of SipanCraftspeople – metal workers, potters, weavers, painters, farmers, fishermen, traders, construction workers – little is known about the daily life of these workers
17Moche Review 200 BCE- 700 CE Northern Peru 2000 separate settlements Created irrigation systemsRoyal tombs show social classesLord, buried in shrouds and covered in jewelsSurrounded by servants and animalsLlamas, a dog, and a snakePaintings show priests in warfare and performing human sacrifices on the prisonersMoche left around 600 CE and no one knows why
18Wari and Tiwanaku 400 CE – 1000 CE Interior empires Wari – northern highlands of the AndesTiwanaku – southern part of the AndesBoth centered on large urban capitals, monumental architecture, and large populationsBoth governments collected surplus food – incase of drought and famineNeither controlled a continuous band of territory
19Wari and Tiwanaku Both developed vertical empires Colonies at lower levels on the eastern and western slopes of the AndesFood – seafood, maize, chili peppers, cocoa, hallucinogenic plantsCaravans of llama linked distant centers – allowed for trade
20Wari VS Tiwanaku Agriculture – Architecture - City organization – Wari = hillside terracing, snowmelt from AndesTiwanaku = “raised field” – elevated planting areas separated by small irrigation canalsArchitecture -Wari = tombs and temples were built of field stoneTiwanaku = elaborate fitted stone walls and buildingsCity organization –Wari = built to a common plan, linked to capital by highwaysTiwanaku = not as tightly control compared to Wari
21Wari VS Tiwanaku Shared 300 mile border Little conflict between the two, or interactionSpoke own languages, different clothes, different godsCapitals were the base of their civilizationsFollowing their collapse were a series of smaller Andean kingdoms – one which became the Inca Empire – used technology and architecture from the Wari and Tiwanaku. Inca claimed Tiwanaku as their origin.Fall of American empires came with the invasions of the Europeans in the 1400’s
25Discussion Questions: What kind of influence did Chavin exert in the Andes region?What features of Moche life characterize it as a civilization?What was the significance of Wari and Tiwanaku in the history of the Andean Civilization?