Contents Landfill in the Netherlands: historic overview Towards landfill minimization Organizational, regulatory and financial measures Avoiding practices Contemporary situation Future perspectives
Royal Dutch Solid Waste Association Members: –Municipalities (190 members) –Public waste management companies, mainly local and regional (127 members = almost 100%) => covering over 90% of all Dutch Municipalities and over 95% population –Other waste management organisations, 152 members, national network Represents the (public) waste management sector Aims from a public perspective: –Pro-active policy development and serving of interests –Knowledge centre for waste management –Network for professionalization of waste management activities –Enhancing the image of the waste management sector with its dynamics, innovation and societal interest European activities : Municipal Waste Europe, active member International activities: ISWA, active member for long
Development of waste treatment in NL 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 19851990199520002005 Discharge: 1% Landfill: 4% Recovery: 83% Million tons Incineration: 12%
Historic overview (II) Before 1970: every municipality operated their own landfill site VAM: Large national landfill capacity in Wijster (Drenthe) Late 1960’s: environmental awareness; raise of green policies; Stricter requirements for emissions to soil From 1970-1990: municipal cooperation At the same time increasing focus on environmental protection Introduction of a waste hierarchy or ‘Ladder van Lansink’ (1979)
Historic overview (III) 1979: introduction of the Waste Law: household waste was to be treated in own province. Directive: waste reduction and separation Led to search for new ways of waste processing Ending contracts with the Wijster landfill site not renewed Result: decreasing landfill through 1980’s Halfway the 1980’s: no more waste import to Drenthe 1990-2000: increase of incineration capacity; aftercare obligation; waste amounts to landfill reduced considerably 1980’s: 200 landfill sites 2000: 25 landfill sites in operation By the beginning of the 1990’s: Capacity of waste incineration plants not fully used: landfilling was still cheaper Hence: national regulation needed!
Organizational measures AOO (from 1990): Alliance for organized waste policy –Cooperation between all levels of government, waste companies and environmental organizations –Concrete policy framework –Monitoring and evaluation of waste management programmes Environmental Management Act (1993) –Adoption of waste hierarchy –Separate collection of organic household waste compulsory
Organizational measures (II) LAP (National waste management plan) since 2003 –Integration of hazardous and non-hazardous waste policies –Consists of three parts: Policy framework with policy headlines for waste prevention and management 34 sector plans for specific waste categories Two capacity plans for incineration and landfill Municipalities had time to develop cooperation and invest in human resources and expertise
Weighbridge and registration InspectionLeachate treatment plant Landfill gas extraction
Regulatory measures Landfill ban by law (1995): no more municipal waste to landfill Residues permitted to landfill Problems: –Broad interpretation of residues –Ban as long as incineration plants have capacity
Processing costs (per 1000 kg, taxes not included) Landfilling€ 20 Composting€ 20 Digestate€ 30 Incineration€ 60-130 down to…. Recycling€ 80 market value secondary product
Financial measures Landfill taxes (1995) As a part of a ‘green’ policy initially not so much as a solution for the landfill issue Differentiated: Higher tax for non-ignitable and reusable waste Problems: –Non-reuseable waste cheaper: waste ‘re-labelling’ to reduce costs –From 2001: export to Germany (tax free landfilling); (mainly business waste)
Avoiding practices Broad interpretation of the from landfill ban excepted residues Export to countries with no landfill ban Re-labelling of waste: ‘clean’ streams became residues, mixing Intentional waste pollution lower landfill taxes Container overload to create the illusion of a higher weight density (hazardous waste is heavier and could still be landfilled..) Strong inspection and maintenance regime required…
Environmental Management Act Waste separation initiatives Landfill ban and taxesGerman landfill ban Increasing incineration capacity Waste export
Contemporary situation German landfill-ban since 2005 Differentiated landfill fees: –High tax: ignitable and recyclable waste –Low tax: non-ignitable and not recyclable, inert waste Vast amount of new incineration plants were built Overcapacity incineration From regional to national responsibility; centralization (Welschen) Earning capacity of landfill sites at stake: Public utility
Conclusions Power & success of Dutch waste management policy: –Consultation and orientation between all authorities –Combination of financial and regulatory instruments Authorities kept control over start (collection) and end (landfill) of the waste management chain. Authorities had a good grip on realisation of policy targets for municipal solid waste.
Future perspectives Avoid pitfalls; tackle avoiding practices: “It takes a thief to catch a thief” Towards recycling, reuse and prevention Invest in waste separation for recycling and tackle overcapacity in incineration in NL. Import of Italian waste?! Clear and integral organization and policy structures (like AOO and LAP) of vital importance to tackle future waste management issues
Future development: sustainable landfill No unacceptable emission during and after operation Solve environmental problems with own generation Achieve a stable situation after completion End aftercare when that situation is reached www.sustainablelandfillfoundation.eu Transform landfills into recycling centres
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