Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 17: Eastern Absolutism. Serfdom in Eastern Europe Settlers had been lured to eastern Europe based on economic and religious freedom Black Death.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Eastern Absolutism. Serfdom in Eastern Europe Settlers had been lured to eastern Europe based on economic and religious freedom Black Death."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17: Eastern Absolutism

2 Serfdom in Eastern Europe Settlers had been lured to eastern Europe based on economic and religious freedom Black Death left eastern Europe de-populated 1.(1497) Peasant could only move for a 2 week window after the fall harvest a new code in Russia required runaway serfs to be returned to the owner, even after nine years, and placed no limit on the authority of owners over their peasants. 3.In Prussia runaway serfs were hunted and returned to lords where they were punished by having an ear nailed to a post. 4.(1574)Polish nobles could legally kill their serfs

3 Increased Serfdom 1.Increased serfdom was also a good way for the monarch to gain favor with and control of his nobility. 2.Serfdom was thought to help the weakened economy, which was a myth; capitalism needs consumers to thrive. 3.Robot: Peasants owed lord 3 to 4 days a week of forced labor-They were forced to work more and more for their lords and were permitted less and less time to feed themselves. Lords then sold the product of the serfs’ labor to foreigners, usually the Dutch. This left them in “hereditary subjugation.”

4 5 Major Causes of Increased Serfdom in the East 1.Labor shortages have blamed 2.Eastern nobles were powerful enough to subjugate their serfs. Monarchs need them 3.No “new monarchs” in east yet. The “new monarchs” will eventually free the serfs in the east. Kings are seen as First among equals. They have no concept of divine right. 4.No peasant revolts left the nobility to do as they pleased. 5.Towns lost their feudal privileges such as the right of refuge

5 The Austrian Empire Comprised of Austrians, Hungarians, & Bohemians.Comprised of Austrians, Hungarians, & Bohemians. Problems with EmpireProblems with Empire 1.Multinational empire with different cultures and languages. 2.Religious differences (continuous wars) 3.Threatening Ottoman Turks 4.Main alliance (Spain) deteriorating in power and influence.

6 The Austrian Empire Comprised of Austrians, Hungarians, & Bohemians.Comprised of Austrians, Hungarians, & Bohemians. Problems with EmpireProblems with Empire 1.Multinational empire with different cultures and languages. 2.Religious differences (continuous wars) 3.Threatening Ottoman Turks 4.Main alliance (Spain) deteriorating in power and influence.

7 Eastern monarchs gain political power 1.They imposed and collected permanent taxes without consent. 2.They maintained permanent standing armies. 3.They conducted foreign relations with other states as they pleased.

8

9 Leopold I ( ) He successfully repelled the Turks in 1683 gaining lands of Transylvania and Hungary.He successfully repelled the Turks in 1683 gaining lands of Transylvania and Hungary. Tried to centralize the government; partly successful.Tried to centralize the government; partly successful.

10 Growth of Austria to 1748

11 Charles VI ( ) Inherited a fragile union of lands (Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary)Inherited a fragile union of lands (Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary) Issued the Pragmatic Sanction (1713) to solidify the Hapsburg Throne.Issued the Pragmatic Sanction (1713) to solidify the Hapsburg Throne. –The Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided and were always to be passed intact to a single heir, who might be female. Prince Frances Rakoczy leads a rebellion in Hungary, fails, but forces the Hapsburg to restore some traditional privileges.Prince Frances Rakoczy leads a rebellion in Hungary, fails, but forces the Hapsburg to restore some traditional privileges.

12 Effects on Hungary Hungary accepted Hapsburg rule in return for restoring traditional privileges.Hungary accepted Hapsburg rule in return for restoring traditional privileges. Hungary never became a fully centralized state under its own ruler.Hungary never became a fully centralized state under its own ruler.

13 Maria Theresa ( ) Daughter of Charles VI.Daughter of Charles VI. Left with poor army, empty treasury, ineffective bureaucracy, and Czech rebellion from Bohemia.Left with poor army, empty treasury, ineffective bureaucracy, and Czech rebellion from Bohemia.

14 M.T.’s State Building Policies Reformed the church by forbidding the founding of new monasteries.Reformed the church by forbidding the founding of new monasteries. Abolished the clergy’s exemptions of taxesAbolished the clergy’s exemptions of taxes Established a new bureaucracy in Vienna by appointing new local officials (helped her collect taxes)Established a new bureaucracy in Vienna by appointing new local officials (helped her collect taxes) Improved the military and its trainingImproved the military and its training

15

16 Prussia (Hohenzollerns) State building was possible through an alliance between the ruler and the nobles.State building was possible through an alliance between the ruler and the nobles. Large land owning nobles were called JunkersLarge land owning nobles were called Junkers German Princes gained their independence in the Treaty of WestphaliaGerman Princes gained their independence in the Treaty of Westphalia

17

18 Frederick William (r ) a.k.a. the Great Electora.k.a. the Great Elector Realized other states were wanting his possessions; built a good army to defend his borders.Realized other states were wanting his possessions; built a good army to defend his borders.

19 Frederick gains power He overpowered the Junkers and denied them the right to vote on taxes.He overpowered the Junkers and denied them the right to vote on taxes. Set up a standing army, funded by permanent taxes. Army collected the taxes and served as the police.Set up a standing army, funded by permanent taxes. Army collected the taxes and served as the police. Army grew 1000%Army grew 1000% Junkers decided to side with the king for stability and gained hereditary serfdom in 1653.Junkers decided to side with the king for stability and gained hereditary serfdom in wrote the Edict of Potsdam that offered all Huguenots religious freedom in Brandenburg.1685 wrote the Edict of Potsdam that offered all Huguenots religious freedom in Brandenburg.

20 Frederick III (r ) Unlike dad, enjoyed court society and made Berlin into a cultural center with a lively court.Unlike dad, enjoyed court society and made Berlin into a cultural center with a lively court. “First king of Prussia”; became Frederick I“First king of Prussia”; became Frederick I

21 Frederick William I (r ) Was a Spartan ruler who did not enjoy court life but loved his military. “The Soldiers’ King”Was a Spartan ruler who did not enjoy court life but loved his military. “The Soldiers’ King” Made Prussia the “Sparta of the North” (military state)Made Prussia the “Sparta of the North” (military state) Best army in EuropeBest army in Europe –Was into tall soldiers 6 feet and above –Said “sword is mightier than the pen” –He lived frugally to support the army

22 Frederick II (Frederick the Great) Trained for kingship by his father and had a sense of duty for his countryTrained for kingship by his father and had a sense of duty for his country Used absolute rule to reach his objectivesUsed absolute rule to reach his objectives –Establish religious toleration and judicial reform –Main goal; security. Acquire new stronger borders 1740 attacked Silesia; Hapsburg owned (War of Austrian Succession)1740 attacked Silesia; Hapsburg owned (War of Austrian Succession)

23 Growth of Prussia to 1748

24

25 Eastern Europe ( )

26 Russian Absolutism

27 BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND Russians are Slavic and Vikings ancestryRussians are Slavic and Vikings ancestry Boyars – Russian nobles, acted more like mafia goonsBoyars – Russian nobles, acted more like mafia goons Mongols; “Golden Horde” took control in the 13 th century – left legacy of ruthless rule. (Genghis Khan)Mongols; “Golden Horde” took control in the 13 th century – left legacy of ruthless rule. (Genghis Khan) Greatly influenced by Byzantine and Roman heritage.Greatly influenced by Byzantine and Roman heritage. Ivan I – a.k.a. Ivan moneybags was a tax collector for the Mongols… used army to put down enemies.Ivan I – a.k.a. Ivan moneybags was a tax collector for the Mongols… used army to put down enemies.

28 Ivan III “Ivan the Great” ( ) “Third Rome”: He assumed leadership of Orthodox Christian Church (centralized government)“Third Rome”: He assumed leadership of Orthodox Christian Church (centralized government) Liberated Russia from the MongolsLiberated Russia from the Mongols Conquered much territory; expanded its borders.Conquered much territory; expanded its borders. Tsars see themselves as defenders of the Orthodox FaithTsars see themselves as defenders of the Orthodox Faith

29 Ivan IV “Ivan the Terrible” ( ) First to take the title “tsar”First to take the title “tsar” ( ) “Good Period”( ) “Good Period” Defeated the last of the Mongols in Russia; conquered the Baltic, Black Sea regionDefeated the last of the Mongols in Russia; conquered the Baltic, Black Sea region Began westernizing Russia by increasing trade contacts with the Dutch, English, and French (hated for this).Began westernizing Russia by increasing trade contacts with the Dutch, English, and French (hated for this). Began service nobility; doing services for the tsar for land in return. (more serfs)Began service nobility; doing services for the tsar for land in return. (more serfs)

30 (1560) “Bad Period”(1560) “Bad Period” Wife dies and he blames BoyarsWife dies and he blames Boyars Destroys the Moscow boyars with a “reign of terror” with his secret police; The oprichniks.Destroys the Moscow boyars with a “reign of terror” with his secret police; The oprichniks. (reading; Ivan IV)(reading; Ivan IV) Violent quarrel, he killed his eldest son and heir.Violent quarrel, he killed his eldest son and heir.

31

32 “Time of Troubles” ( ) Period of chaos after Ivan’s death in Russia leaves no clear heir.Period of chaos after Ivan’s death in Russia leaves no clear heir. Cossacks; peasants who fled oppressive rule and called for the “true” tsar (not nobles and officials)Cossacks; peasants who fled oppressive rule and called for the “true” tsar (not nobles and officials) Sweden and Poland even occupied Moscow.Sweden and Poland even occupied Moscow. Michael Romanov is elected hereditary tsar (1613)Michael Romanov is elected hereditary tsar (1613) Split in the Church (1652); Nikon tries to make the Russian Church more like the Greek Orthodox Church. – considered an AntichristSplit in the Church (1652); Nikon tries to make the Russian Church more like the Greek Orthodox Church. – considered an Antichrist “Old Believers”- resisted change and westernization in Russia.“Old Believers”- resisted change and westernization in Russia.

33 Peter the Great ( ) Overthrew his ½ sister, Sophia and strelski; imperial guards for the tsar.Overthrew his ½ sister, Sophia and strelski; imperial guards for the tsar. Peter forced Russians to adapt “western ways”Peter forced Russians to adapt “western ways” Sent Russians away to study and brought foreigners into his court.Sent Russians away to study and brought foreigners into his court. Forced the “Old Believers” to shave.Forced the “Old Believers” to shave.

34 Toured Western Europe and was called back by a strelski revolt in Modernized the army with (Prussia’s help); standing army of 200,000. Created Schools; required 5 yrs. of compulsory education away from for every nobleman. Table of ranks based on merit. Great Northern War – ( ) Took on Charles XII of Sweden and he gets his butt kicked at Battle of Poltava.Great Northern War – ( ) Took on Charles XII of Sweden and he gets his butt kicked at Battle of Poltava.

35 St. Petersburg Built “Winter Palace” on the BalticBuilt “Winter Palace” on the Baltic Moved gov’t there including the Boyars. (Just like Louis)Moved gov’t there including the Boyars. (Just like Louis) Got nobility to build and pay for the city. City layed out by strictly separated classes.Got nobility to build and pay for the city. City layed out by strictly separated classes. Conscripted peasants to build the city in the summer.Conscripted peasants to build the city in the summer. Treaty of Nystad (1721) Peter gained Baltic states “window to the West”Treaty of Nystad (1721) Peter gained Baltic states “window to the West”

36

37

38 Effects of Peters’ Reign Russia became the dominant power on the Baltic and a Great European PowerRussia became the dominant power on the Baltic and a Great European Power Western ideas and culture flowed into RussiaWestern ideas and culture flowed into Russia New class of educated Russians emerged.New class of educated Russians emerged. The gap between Russian serfdom and educated nobility widened.The gap between Russian serfdom and educated nobility widened. New idea of state’s interest instead of personal interest took hold.New idea of state’s interest instead of personal interest took hold.

39 Palaces and Power Palaces of Europe tried to exemplify baroque style and Versailles architecture.Palaces of Europe tried to exemplify baroque style and Versailles architecture. Schonbrunn was built in Vienna by emperor Leopold I to demonstrate his Habsburg power and military victories.Schonbrunn was built in Vienna by emperor Leopold I to demonstrate his Habsburg power and military victories.

40 A virtual tour of the Great Catherine Palace

41 St. Petersburg Comfortable modern city –Broad, straight, stone paved streets –Houses built in uniform line –Large parks, stone bridges All buildings had to conform to strict architecture codes Each social group had its certain section of town.

42 Building St. Petersburg Built on a swampBuilt on a swamp Used recruited serfs in the summer timeUsed recruited serfs in the summer time –1 in every 10 to 15 households had to furnish one worker and then pay a special tax in order to feed and house the workers. Many died due to sickness, hunger, and accidents.Many died due to sickness, hunger, and accidents. Forced nobles to live there and had them pay a tax to pay for maintenance of the city.Forced nobles to live there and had them pay a tax to pay for maintenance of the city.


Download ppt "Chapter 17: Eastern Absolutism. Serfdom in Eastern Europe Settlers had been lured to eastern Europe based on economic and religious freedom Black Death."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google