Serfdom Elimination of free movement for the peasants Imposed heavier labor obligations In Prussia heredity subjugation
Politics not Economics When the economy improved in the West the peasants received more freedom The opposite occurred in the East
Politics continued… In the West excess supplies meant freedom from the landlords – remember Italian city states In the East landlords sold excess supplies to foreign capitalists. Not even the town air made them free
The Rise of Austria and Prussia How did they become united under a central ruler?? –First: imposed taxes without the consent of other nobles –Second Created permanent standing armies
Austria Not as strong of an absolute rule as the Prussians Thirty Years War left them in ruins Rooting out Protestants cost time and money Defeat forced the Hapsburgs to turn inward –During the War Ferdinand II reduces the power of the protestants in Bohemia –Ferdinand III unifies several states
Turks Retreat: The Three Empires Austria Bohemia Hungary
The Pragmatic Sanction Charles VI (r1711-1740) –Fragile Alliance –Stated that the heir to the throne be kept intact to one single ruler – male of female.
The Hungarians Resisted unification Many were Protestants Turkey was a military ally 1703 Prince Rakoczy forces the Hapsburgs to compromise –Hungary would keep its traditional privileges –Accepted Habsburg rule
Prussia- The Elector of Brandenburg German nobles were weakened by wars Frederick William – The Great Elector –Began uniting provinces by diplomacy and war –Began to tax estates without consent –1688 at the year of his death increased the army ten-fold –Used violence and the threat of war to consolidate power and tax.
Frederick William I The Soldier King (r.1714-1740) Forget about Frederick the Ostentatious Fred I built a great army – tall soldiers Create a cult of militarism Violent temper Harsh discipline
Freddy I continued… Controls the Junkers(nobles) by enlisting them as officers in the army Created an efficient bureaucracy Created an army that man-for-man was the best in Europe, but rarely used them. Obedience was the highest virtue.