2Chapter 30 Animal Hormones Key Concepts30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers30.2 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine Systems30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems
3Chapter 30 Opening Question How do the transformative effects of testosterone exemplify the way many hormones work?
4Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Endocrine secretion—cells secrete substances into the extracellular fluidExocrine secretion—cells secrete substances into a duct or a body cavity that communicates to the external world
5Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Endocrine cells—cells that secrete endocrine signalsSome endocrine cells exist as single cells (e.g., in the digestive tract).Endocrine glands—secretory organs composed of aggregations of endocrine cells
6Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Endocrine signaling molecules are paracrine signals, autocrine signals, or hormones.Hormones are “long-distance” endocrine signals that are released into the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body.See Chapter 5See Figure 5.10
7Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Target cells—cells that have receptors for the chemical signalsThe same hormone can have a variety of different target cells, all distant from the site of release.
8Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Hormones are in three chemical groups:Peptide and protein hormones—water- soluble, transported in blood with receptors on exterior of target cellsSteroid hormones—synthesized from cholesterol; lipid-soluble; bound to carrier proteins in blood; receptors inside target cellsVIDEO 30.1 Cell Visualization: Membranes, hormones, and receptorsVIDEO 30.2 Cell Visualization: Signals and calcium
9Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Amine hormones—synthesized from single amino acids; may be lipid-soluble or water-soluble, depending on the charge of the amino acid
13Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Chemical communication was critical for evolution of multicellular organisms.Plants, sponges, and protists all use chemical signals.Signaling molecules are highly conserved, but their functions differ.LINK The study of plant growth and development has contributed greatly to our knowledge of hormones and how they work; see Chapter 26
14Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers In arthropods, hormones control molting and metamorphosisThe rigid exoskeleton is shed during molts to allow growth.Growth stages between molts are called instars.
15Figure 30.2 A Diffusible Substance Triggers Molting (Part 1)
16Figure 30.2 A Diffusible Substance Triggers Molting (Part 2)
17Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Two hormones regulate molting:PTTH (prothoracicotropic hormone), from cells in the brain, is stored in the corpora cardiacaPTTH stimulates the prothoracic gland to secrete ecdysone.Ecdysone diffuses to target tissues and stimulates molting.
18Concept 30.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers A third hormone, juvenile hormone, is also released from the brain—prevents maturation to adult form.Control of development by juvenile hormone is important in insects with complete metamorphosis.ANIMATED TUTORIAL 30.1 Complete MetamorphosisVIDEO 30.3 Complete metamorphosis in a butterfly
20Concept 30.2 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors Hormone receptors can be membrane- bound with three domains:Binding domain—projects outside plasma membraneTransmembrane domain—anchors receptorCytoplasmic domain—extends into cytoplasm, initiates target cell responseLINK Review the mechanisms of receptor protein actions in Concepts 5.5 and 5.6See Figure 5.17
21Concept 30.2 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors Hormone receptors can also be intracellular:Lipid soluble hormones—receptors are inside the cell, usually in the cytoplasmWhen hormone binds, the hormone– receptor complex moves into the nucleus.See Concept 36.1
22Concept 30.2 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors One hormone can trigger different responses in different types of cells.Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by adrenal glands in the fight-or- flight response.These hormones bind to adrenergic receptors.See Concept 5.5VIDEO 30.4 Human physiological response to adrenaline
24Concept 30.2 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors Two categories: -adrenergic and - adrenergic receptorsStimulation of one receptor can cause diverse effects, depending on its location.Example: -adrenergic stimulation causes sweating in skin and shutdown of digestive enzymes and decreased blood flow in gut.See Chapter 39
27Concept 30.2 Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors Abundance of hormone receptors can be regulated by negative feedback.Downregulation—continuous high level of hormone decreases number of receptors.Upregulation—when hormone secretion is suppressed, receptors increase.LINK The crucial role of insulin in regulating glucose metabolism is detailed in Concept 39.4
29The nervous system communicates via molecules—neurotransmitters. Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine SystemsThe nervous system communicates via molecules—neurotransmitters.The endocrine system communicates via molecules released into the blood.The systems are complementary—nervous system is rapid and specific, endocrine system is broader and longer-term.
30The nervous and endocrine systems also interact. Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine SystemsThe nervous and endocrine systems also interact.Nervous system controls activity of many endocrine glands.Some neurons secrete hormones directly— neurohormones.Endocrine system can also influence the nervous system—steroids promote sexual behavior.ANIMATED TUTORIAL 30.2 The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Endocrine Axis
31The pituitary gland connects the nervous and endocrine systems. Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine SystemsThe pituitary gland connects the nervous and endocrine systems.The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus of the brain.Two parts—the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
33Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine Systems The hypothalamus secretes two neurohormones into the posterior pituitary: antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin.Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) serves to increase the water retained by the kidneys when necessary.Oxytocin stimulates contractions, milk flow, promotes bonding—the “cuddle chemical”
37Growth hormone (GH) stimulates cells to take up amino acids. Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine SystemsThe anterior pituitary also secretes other peptide hormones including prolactin and growth hormone.Growth hormone (GH) stimulates cells to take up amino acids.GH stimulates the liver to produce somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs).Overproduction of GH causes gigantism; underproduction causes pituitary dwarfism.See pp. 604–605
38Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine Systems Neurohormones from the hypothalamus control subsequent hormone production in the anterior pituitary.The hypothalamus sends secretions to the anterior pituitary via the portal blood vessels.
39TSH causes the thyroid gland to release thyroxine. Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine SystemsHypothalamic neurohormones are released in minute quantities measurable by immunoassay.The first releasing hormone to be purified was thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).TRH causes anterior pituitary cells to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).TSH causes the thyroid gland to release thyroxine.See p. 614See Chapter 31
40Hypothalamus slows release of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Concept 30.3 The Pituitary Gland Links the Nervous and Endocrine SystemsNegative feedback loops control hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary.Corticotropin is released by pituitary— adrenal produces cortisol in response.Circulating cortisol in bloodstream reaches pituitary and inhibits production.Hypothalamus slows release of corticotropin-releasing hormone.APPLY THE CONCEPT The pituitary gland links the nervous and endocrine systems
41Figure 30.9 Multiple Feedback Loops Control Hormone Secretion
42Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems The thyroid gland contains two cell types that produce two different hormones, thyroxine and calcitonin.In or near the thyroid gland are the parathyroid glands, which produce parathyroid hormone.Thyroxine (T4) is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine and iodine.T3 is a similar hormone that is more active.
43Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems In birds and mammals, thyroxine raises metabolic rate.Thyroxine regulates cell metabolism by acting as a transcription factor for many genes and is crucial during development.Hypothalamus releases thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH), which causes anterior pituitary to secrete thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH).TSH causes the thyroid to produce thyroxine.
44Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland.Hyperthyroidism (thyroxine excess) is often caused by an autoimmune disease.Antibody-binding activates TSH receptors on follicle cells and increases thyroxine.Thyroid remains stimulated and grows bigger.
45Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Hypothyroidism (thyroxine deficiency) is the result of low circulating thyroxine.The most common cause is iodine deficiency—thyroid cannot produce thyroxine.TSH levels remain high and stimulate the thyroid to grow bigger.
47Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Blood calcium concentration is controlled by calcitonin, calcitriol (from vitamin D), and parathyroid hormone (PTH).Mechanisms for changing calcium levels:Deposition or absorption by boneExcretion or retention by kidneysAbsorption of calcium from digestive tract
48Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Calcitonin, released by thyroid, lowers blood calcium (Ca2+) by regulating bone turnover.Osteoclasts break down bone, increasing blood Ca2+.Ca2+ is deposited into bone by osteoblasts; levels of Ca2+ in blood decrease.Calcitonin decreases osteoclast activity and favors adding calcium to bones.
50Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Vitamin D (calciferol) is synthesized from cholesterol in skin cells by UV light.Once synthesized it is converted to calcitriol, a hormone that stimulates calcium absorption from food.If light is insufficient, vitamin D must be obtained from diet or supplements.ANIMATED TUTORIAL 30.3 Hormonal Regulation of Calcium
51Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH).PTH raises blood calcium levels:Stimulates osteoclasts and osteoblastsStimulates kidneys to reabsorb calciumActivates synthesis of calcitriol from vitamin DAPPLY THE CONCEPT Hormones regulate mammalian physiological systems
52Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Each of the two adrenal glands is a gland within a gland.The core, or adrenal medulla, produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.Release of these neurohormones is under control of the nervous system and is very rapid in the stress response.
53Figure 30.12 The Adrenal Is a Gland within a Gland
54Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems The outer adrenal cortex produces two types of corticosteroid hormones:Mineralocorticoids influence salt and water balanceAldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid, stimulates kidneys to conserve sodium and excrete potassium.
55Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Glucocorticoids influence blood glucose concentrationCortisol, the main glucocorticoid in humans and mammals, mediates metabolic stress response.After a stressful stimulus, blood cortisol rises.Cells not critical for action decrease their use of blood glucose—immune system reactions are also blocked.
56Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Gonads produce sex steroids.Androgens—male steroids, testosteroneEstrogens and progesterone—female steroidsBoth sexes use both types, in varying levels.In embryos, sex hormones determine sex of fetus; at puberty, they stimulate maturation and secondary sex characteristics.
57Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Sex hormones exert their effects by the seventh week of human development.If a Y chromosome is present, gonads begin producing testosterone and MIS (Müllerian-inhibiting substance)—these produce male reproductive organs and inhibit female reproductive structures.Without androgens, female reproductive structures develop.
58Figure 30.13 Sex Steroids Direct the Development of Human Sex Organs (Part 1)
59Figure 30.13 Sex Steroids Direct the Development of Human Sex Organs (Part 2)
60Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems At puberty, production of sex hormones increases.Controlled by tropic hormones called gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary:Luteinizing hormone (LH)Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
61Concept 30.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems Gonadotropins are controlled by hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnrH)—its release increases at puberty.Increase in gonadotropins leads to increase in sex steroids and development of secondary sex characteristics.
62Answer to Opening Question Hormones and their receptor complexes can have varying effects depending on the type of target cells. The receptors are essential because without them the circulating hormones are unable to have the desired effect. Hormones may also be modified during development, with different effects at different stages.