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Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition Solomon Berg Martin Chapter 47 Endocrine Regulation.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition Solomon Berg Martin Chapter 47 Endocrine Regulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition Solomon Berg Martin Chapter 47 Endocrine Regulation

2 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation The endocrine system Endocrine glands, cells, and tissues that secrete hormones –Hormones are an important type of chemical signal by which cells communicate –Secreted into the interstitial fluid and typically transported by the blood –Bind with receptors or in specific target cells

3 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Some types of endocrine signaling

4 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Four main chemical groups Fatty acid derivatives –Prostaglandins and the juvenile hormone of insects Steroids –Secreted by the adrenal cortex, ovary, and testis, as well as the molting hormone of insects

5 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Four main chemical groups, cont. Amino acid derivatives –Thyroid hormones and epinephrine Peptides or proteins –ADH and glucagon are peptide hormones –Insulin is a small protein

6 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Major chemical groups of hormones

7 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Hormone secretion Typically regulated by negative feedback mechanisms –Hormone is released in response to some change in a steady state –Triggers a response that counteracts the changed condition –This process restores homeostasis

8 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Regulation by negative feedback

9 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Steroid and thyroid hormones Hydrophic molecules –Pass through the plasma membrane –Combine with receptors within the target cell –The hormone-receptor complex may activate or repress transcription of messenger RNA coding for specific proteins

10 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Mechanism of action of steroid hormones

11 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Peptide hormones are hydrophillic and do not enter target cells Combine with receptors on the plasma membrane of target cells Many hormones bind to G protein- linked receptors –Act via signal transduction

12 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Overview of peptide hormone action

13 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Mechanism of action of hormones that use G protein-linked receptors and second messengers

14 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Most peptide hormones are first messengers Carry out their actions by way of second messengers –Cyclic AMP (cAMP) –Calcium ions

15 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Phospholipid products as second messengers

16 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Inositol trisphosphat (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol (DAG) Second messengers that –Increase calcium concentration –Activate enzymes

17 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Receptor tyrosine kinases Enzyme-lined receptors Bind growth factors, including insulin and nerve growth factors

18 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Signal amplification Occurs as each hormone-receptor complex stimulates the production of second messenger molecules Second messengers activate protein kinase molecules that activate protein molecules

19 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Four functions of hormones in invertebrates Neurohormones secreted by neurons rather than endocrine glands

20 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Four functions of hormones in invertebrates, cont. Help regulate –Metabolism –Growth and development –Regeneration –Molting –Metamorphosis –Reproduction and behavior

21 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Regulation of growth and molting in insects

22 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Human endocrine glands

23 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Some endocrine glands and their hormones

24 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Consequences of endocrine malfunction

25 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Nervous and endocrine regulation Integrated in the hypothalamus, which regulates the pituitary gland

26 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Oxytocin and ADH Produced by the hypothalamus Released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary

27 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Hypothalamus Secretes –Releasing hormones –Inhibiting hormones These regulate the hormone output of the anterior lobe of the pituitary

28 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Anterior lobe of the pituitary Secretes the growth hormone, prolactin Several tropic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands

29 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation The hypothalamus regulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

30 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Growth hormone (GH) Anabolic hormone that stimulates body growth Stimulates the liver to produce insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which promote skeletal and tissue growth

31 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Thyroid gland Secretes –Thyroxine –Triiodothyronine Stimulate the rate of metabolism

32 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Regulation of thyroid secretion Depends mainly on a negative feedback system –Anterior pituitary gland –Thyroid gland

33 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Thyroid hyposecretion Childhood cretinism Adult myxedema Thyroid hypersecretion Most common cause is Grave’s disease Goiter associated with both hyposecretion and hypersecretion

34 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Regulation of thyroid secretion by negative feedback

35 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Parathyroid glands Secrete PTH –Regulates calcium level in the blood –Stimulates calcium release from bones Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid, acts antagonistically to PTH

36 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Regulation of calcium homeostasis by PTH and calcitonin

37 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Islets of Langerhans Secrete insulin –Stimulates cells to take up glucose and so lowers blood glucose Secrete glucagon –Raises blood glucose concentration Diabetes mellitus –Results in decreased use of glucose

38 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Islets of Langerhans

39 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Adrenal glands Secrete hormones that help the body cope with stress Adrenal medulla secretes –Epinephrine –Norepinephrine Adrenal cortex secretes –Sex hormones

40 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Adrenal gland

41 Copyright © 2005 Brooks/Cole — Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh EditionCHAPTER 47 Endocrine Regulation Response to stress


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