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Chapter 4 Motivation and Values. 4-2 Motivation Motivation: processes that lead us to behave as we do Also, the forces that drive us to buy/use products.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Motivation and Values. 4-2 Motivation Motivation: processes that lead us to behave as we do Also, the forces that drive us to buy/use products."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Motivation and Values

2 4-2 Motivation Motivation: processes that lead us to behave as we do Also, the forces that drive us to buy/use products Goal: consumer’s desired end state Drive: degree of consumer arousal for end state The ad shows desired end state and suggests solution (purchase of equipment)

3 4-3 Motivational Strength Motivational strength: degree of willingness to expend resources to reach a goal Drive theory: biological needs produce unpleasant states of arousal (e.g., hunger) Expectancy theory: behavior is motivated by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes. Expectancy-Value theory: behavior is motivated by both expectations of achieving desirable outcomes and the value of those outcomes.

4 4-4 Three Types of Motivational Conflicts Two desirable alternatives Cognitive dissonance Positive & negative aspects of desired product “Guilt of desire” occurs Facing a choice with two undesirable alternatives

5 4-5 Types of Needs Types of needs: Biogenic: biological needs, such as for air, water, food Psychogenic: need for status, power, affiliation Utilitarian: need for tangible attributes of a product, such as miles per gallon in a car or limited # of calories in bean sprouts Hedonic: needs for excitement, self-confidence, fantasy, “feeling good”

6 4-6 Specific Needs and Buying Behavior NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT Value personal accomplishment Place a premium on products that signify success (luxury brands, technology products) NEED FOR AFFILIATION Want to be with other people Focus on products that are used in groups (alcoholic beverages, sports bars) NEED FOR POWER Control one’s environment Focus on products that allow them to have mastery over surroundings (muscle cars, smartphone, spas) NEED FOR UNIQUENESS Assert one’s individual identity Enjoy products that focus on their unique character (perfumes, clothing, PC “wallpaper”)

7 4-7 Maslow’s Hierarchy

8 4-8 Consumer Involvement Involvement: perceived relevance and importance of an object based on one’s needs, values, and interests We get attached to products: (too much involvement?) A man tried to marry his car when fiancée dumped him Camping outside White Castle ten days before grand opening to be the first customer Trampling Wal-Mart worker to death on Black Friday

9 4-9 Conceptualizing Involvement

10 4-10 Levels of Involvement: Inertia to Passion Inertia: consumption at the low end of involvement Decisions made out of habit (lack of motivation) Often motivated by “Cognitive Economy”, Time Pressure or Inconsequentiality Cult product: command fierce consumer loyalty, devotion, and even worship by consumers who are highly involved Cabbage Patch Kids Barack Obama (?) IPhones

11 4-11 Product Involvement Consumer’s level of interest in a product Advertising and sales promotions attempt to increase product involvement (does it work and when?) Mass customization enhances product involvement Dell Computers Build-a-Bear

12 Message-Response Involvement Consumer’s interest in processing marketing communications usually very low, unless situational relevance is high Vigilante Marketing: freelancers and fans film their own commercials for favorite products and post online (YouTube) Marketers experiment with novel ways to increase consumers’ involvement Games/contests on the web Marketing stunts Social & community involvement

13 4-13 Purchase Situation Involvement Purchase situation involvement: differences that occur when buying the same object for different contexts. Example: wedding gift For boss: purchase expensive vase to show that you want to impress boss For cousin you don’t like: purchase inexpensive vase to show you’re indifferent

14 4-14 Measuring Involvement: Involvement Scale To me (object to be judged) is: 1.important_:_:_:_:_:_:_unimportant 2.boring_:_:_:_:_:_:_interesting 3.relevant_:_:_:_:_:_:_irrelevant 4.exciting_:_:_:_:_:_:_unexciting 5.means nothing_:_:_:_:_:_:_means a lot 6.appealing_:_:_:_:_:_:_unappealing 7.fascinating_:_:_:_:_:_:_mundane 8.worthless_:_:_:_:_:_:_valuable 9.involving_:_:_:_:_:_:_uninvolving 10.not needed_:_:_:_:_:_:_needed

15 4-15 Dimensions of Involvement The amount of consumer involvement depends on: Personal interest in product category Risk consequences of bad decision Probability of bad purchase / decision Pleasure value of product category Self-concept relevance (“Sign-value”) Accountability Social Consequences

16 4-16 Consumer-Generated Content Consumers voice their opinions about products, brands, experiences and companies on blogs and social networking sites Involvement has never been higher and continues to grow, all fueled by the web/mobile Examples: Yelp Facebook Twitter Youtube

17 4-17 Strategies for Increasing Involvement Appeal to hedonistic needs Use novel, prominent stimuli in commercials Give consumers tools to increase their involvement (i.e., etc.) Build consumer bonds via ongoing consumer relationships Amplify perceptions of consequences of bad decisions Relate product/brand/company/idea to self-concept

18 4-18 Consumer Values Value: a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite Example: looking younger is preferable to looking older (value “youth”) Products/services = help in attaining value-related goals We seek others that share our values/beliefs Thus, we tend to be “over-exposed” to information that supports our beliefs and perpetuates our values

19 4-19 Core Values Core values: values shared within a culture Example: individualism versus collectivism Enculturation: learning the beliefs and values of one’s own culture Acculturation: learning the value system and behaviors of another culture

20 4-20 Values Explain Consumer Behavior Cultures have Terminal Values, or desired end states Instrumental Values allow one to achieve terminal values Examples: Instrumental ValueTerminal Value AmbitiousA comfortable life Hard-workingA sense of accomplishment DiplomaticBelonging / Social Support

21 4-21 Values Explain Consumer Behavior (cont.) List of Values (LOV) scale: Identifies nine consumer segments based on values they endorse; and Relates each value to differences in consumption behaviors. Example: those who endorse sense of belonging read Reader’s Digest and TV Guide, drink and entertain more, and prefer group activities

22 4-22 Values Explain Consumer Behavior (cont.) Means-End Chain Model Very specific product attributes are linked at levels of increasing abstraction to terminal values Example: Eating “organic” is really about health or sense of belonging. Laddering technique: uncovers consumers’ associations between specific attributes and general consequences (i.e. “terminal values”)

23 4-23 Hierarchical Values Maps for Vegetable Oil in Three Countries

24 4-24 Values Explain Consumer Behavior (cont.) Syndicated surveys: track changes in market values via large-scale surveys Example: Yankelovich Monitor TM

25 4-25 Sustainability: New Core Value? Focus on personal health merging with a growing interest in environmental health LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability): Consumers who: Worry about the environment Want products to be produced in a “sustainable” way Spend on “personal development” and more experiental products as opposed to more materialistic items

26 4-26 Sustainability: New Core Value? (cont.) Carbon footprint: measures, in units of CO 2, the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases they produce Primary footprint is emissions of CO 2 from the burning of fossil fuels (i.e. gasoline) Secondary footprint is indirect CO 2 emitted from the life-cycle of products we use (i.e. “local” vs. “long- distance” produce)

27 4-27 Materialism Materialism: the importance people attach to worldly possessions “The good life”...“He who dies with the most toys, wins” Materialists: value possessions for their own sake and for the status and appearances they convey Non-materialists: value possessions for the connections to others they provide or for the simple pleasures of consuming them Are US citizens materialistic?

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