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Chapter 7 Attitudes.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Attitudes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Attitudes

2 Attitudes A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object. An attitude is: Lasting because it tends to endure over time. General because it applies to more than a momentary event. Attitudes help us make all forms of choices such as: Very product-specific behaviors, and More general consumption-related behaviors.

3 The Functions of Attitudes
By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for Consumers - What Benefits it Provides - Marketers Can Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging. Utilitarian Reward and Punishment Knowledge Need for Meaning, Order & Structure Value-Expressive Consumer’s Values or Self-Concept Attitude Functions Ego-Defensive Protect Person From Threats

4 The ABC Model of Attitudes
Affect Way a Consumer Feels Components of an Attitude Behavior Person’s Intentions to Do Cognition Consumer’s Beliefs

5 Hierarchies of Effects
Standard Learning Hierarchy ATTITUDE Based on Cognitive Information Processing Beliefs Affect Behavior Low-Involvement Hierarchy ATTITUDE Based on Behavioral Learning Processes Beliefs Behavior Affect Experiential Hierarchy ATTITUDE Based on Hedonic Consumption Affect Behavior Beliefs

6 Attitudes Toward the Advertisement
The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion. Determinants Include: Attitude Toward Advertiser Degree to Which the Ad Affects Viewers’ Arousal Levels Evaluations of the Ad Execution Itself Mood Evoked by the Ad

7 Forming Attitudes An Attitude can form in several different ways depending on the Hierarchy of Effects and how the attitude is learned. It can occur because of: Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is paired with a catchy jingle. Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of the Attitude Object is reinforced. Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models behavior of friends and media figures.

8 Forming Attitudes Levels of Commitment to an Attitude
Internalization Forming Attitudes Identification Levels of Commitment to an Attitude Compliance Consumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivated to Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements. Degree of Commitment The Consistency Principle

9 Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Values
States that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take some action to resolve this “dissonance”. Theory focuses on situations in which two Cognitive Elements are inconsistent with one another. Cognitive Elements can be something that a person believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or an observation about his surroundings. Dissonance reduction can occur either by eliminating, adding, or changing elements.

10 Social Judgment Theory
Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection Assimilation Attitude Anchor Contrast Social judgment theory assumes that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know or feel. Latitude of Acceptance Latitudes of Rejection

11 Balance Theory Considers Relations Among Elements a Person Might Perceive as Belonging Together and Desires the Relations Among the Elements in a Triad to be Harmonious, or Balanced. A Person and His/ Her Perceptions (+ or - ) Triad Some Other Person or Object An Attitude Object Marketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to Achieve Balance.

12 Multiattribute Attitude Models
Models Assume That a Consumer’s Attitude (Evaluation) of an Attitude Object Will Depend on the Beliefs He or She Has About Several or Many Attributes of the Object. Attributes Beliefs Importance Weights

13 The Fishbein Model The Fishbein Model is the Most Influential Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three Components of Attitudes: Salient Beliefs About the Object That Are Considered During Evaluation Object-Attitude Linkages, or The Probability That a Particular Object Has an Important Attribute Evaluation of Each of the Important Attributes

14 Fishbein Model Formed by integrating (summing) the separate evaluations of the salient beliefs (ei), weighted by the strength of each beliefs (bi), to create an overall evaluation or attitude (Ao). Ao = Sbiei

15 How Beliefs Are Acquired
Direct experience with product. Information processing information from outside sources (friends) Vicarious experience Inferences


17 Strategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model
Capitalize on Relative Advantage Strengthen Perceived Product / Attribute Linkages Influence Competitors’ Ratings Add a New Attribute

18 Attitude-Behavior Relationship
Weak empirical relationship between attitude and behavior Why? Overall evaluation of product (Ao) not tied to situational factors while behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a situational context or are highly influenced by the environment.

19 Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the “Theory of Reasoned Action” and Includes the Following Modifications: Intentions Versus Behavior Social Pressure Attitude Toward Buying

20 The Theory of Reasoned Action
Reflects the assumption that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative actions and choose the behavior which leads to the most desirable consequences.


22 Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action
Design Locus of Control Basic Assumptions Correspondence Time-Frame Attitude Accessibility

23 Theory of Trying States That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal. Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between Intent and Performance Such As: Amount of Control Over Situation Expectations of Success or Failure Social Norms Attitudes Toward the Process of Trying Frequency of Past Trying of Behavior Recentness of Past Trying of Behavior

24 Tracking Attitudes Over Time
Changes in Different Age Groups Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical Effects Tracking Attitudes Over Time Attitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude Tracking Programs Include: Scenarios About the Future Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy Identification of Change Agents

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