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7-1 Chapter 7 Attitudes. 7-2 Attitudes A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Attitude ObjectAnything.

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Presentation on theme: "7-1 Chapter 7 Attitudes. 7-2 Attitudes A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Attitude ObjectAnything."— Presentation transcript:

1 7-1 Chapter 7 Attitudes

2 7-2 Attitudes A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues. Attitude ObjectAnything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object. An attitude is: –Lasting because it tends to endure over time. –General because it applies to more than a momentary event. Attitudes help us make all forms of choices such as: –Very product-specific behaviors, and –More general consumption-related behaviors.

3 7-3 The Functions of Attitudes Utilitarian Reward and Punishment Knowledge Need for Meaning, Order & Structure Value-Expressive Consumer’s Values or Self-Concept Attitude Functions Ego-Defensive Protect Person From Threats By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for Consumers - What Benefits it Provides - Marketers Can Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging.

4 7-4 The ABC Model of Attitudes Affect Way a Consumer Feels Affect Way a Consumer Feels Behavior Person’s Intentions to Do Behavior Person’s Intentions to Do Cognition Consumer’s Beliefs Cognition Consumer’s Beliefs Components of an Attitude Components of an Attitude

5 7-5 Standard Learning Hierarchy Beliefs Affect Behavior ATTITUDE Based on Cognitive Information Processing Hierarchies of Effects Low-Involvement Hierarchy Beliefs Affect Behavior ATTITUDE Based on Behavioral Learning Processes Experiential Hierarchy Beliefs Affect Behavior ATTITUDE Based on Hedonic Consumptio n

6 7-6 Attitudes Toward the Advertisement Attitude Toward the Advertisement The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion. Determinants Include: Attitude Toward Advertiser Mood Evoked by the Ad Degree to Which the Ad Affects Viewers’ Arousal Levels Evaluations of the Ad Execution Itself Evaluations of the Ad Execution Itself

7 7-7 Forming Attitudes Attitude Hierarchy of EffectsAn Attitude can form in several different ways depending on the Hierarchy of Effects and how the attitude is learned. It can occur because of: Attitude Object –Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is paired with a catchy jingle. Attitude Object –Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of the Attitude Object is reinforced. –Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models behavior of friends and media figures.

8 7-8 Forming Attitudes Levels of Commitment to an Attitude Internalization Identification Compliance Degree of Commitment The Consistency Principle Consumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivated to Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements. Consumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivated to Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements.

9 7-9 States that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take some action to resolve this “dissonance”. Cognitive ElementsTheory focuses on situations in which two Cognitive Elements are inconsistent with one another. –Cognitive Elements –Cognitive Elements can be something that a person believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or an observation about his surroundings. Dissonance reduction can occur either by eliminating, adding, or changing elements. Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Values

10 7-10 Social Judgment Theory Latitudes of Acceptance and Rejection Latitudes of Rejection Attitude Anchor Assimilation Contrast Latitude of Acceptance Latitude of Acceptance

11 7-11 Balance Theory Considers Relations Among Elements a Person Might Perceive as Belonging Together and Desires the Relations Among the Elements in a Triad to be Harmonious, or Balanced. A Person and His/ Her Perceptions (+ or - ) An Attitude Object Some Other Person or Object Marketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to Achieve Balance. Triad

12 7-12 Multiattribute Attitude Models Attributes Beliefs Importance Weights Importance Weights Models Assume That a Consumer’s Attitude (Evaluation) of an Attitude Object Will Depend on the Beliefs He or She Has About Several or Many Attributes of the Object.

13 7-13 The Fishbein Model Fishbein Model The Fishbein Model is the Most Influential Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three Components of Attitudes: Salient Beliefs About the Object That Are Considered During Evaluation Salient Beliefs About the Object That Are Considered During Evaluation Object-Attitude Linkages, or The Probability That a Particular Object Has an Important Attribute Object-Attitude Linkages, or The Probability That a Particular Object Has an Important Attribute Evaluation of Each of the Important Attributes Evaluation of Each of the Important Attributes

14 7-14 Fishbein Model Formed by integrating (summing) the separate evaluations of the salient beliefs (e i ), weighted by the strength of each beliefs (b i ), to create an overall evaluation or attitude (A o ). A o =  b i e i

15 7-15 How Beliefs Are Acquired Direct experience with product. Information processing –information from outside sources (friends) Vicarious experience Inferences

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17 7-17 Strategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model Capitalize on Relative Advantage Capitalize on Relative Advantage Strengthen Perceived Product / Attribute Linkages Strengthen Perceived Product / Attribute Linkages Influence Competitors’ Ratings Influence Competitors’ Ratings Add a New Attribute

18 7-18 Attitude-Behavior Relationship Weak empirical relationship between attitude and behavior Why? –Overall evaluation of product (A o ) not tied to situational factors while behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a situational context or are highly influenced by the environment.

19 7-19 Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior Intentions Versus Behavior Intentions Versus Behavior Social Pressure Social Pressure Attitude Toward Buying Attitude Toward Buying The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the “Theory of Reasoned Action” and Includes the Following Modifications:

20 7-20 The Theory of Reasoned Action Reflects the assumption that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative actions and choose the behavior which leads to the most desirable consequences.

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22 7-22 Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action Obstacles to Predicting Behavior Design Locus of Control Basic Assumptions Correspondence Time-Frame Attitude Accessibility

23 7-23 Theory of Trying Amount of Control Over Situation Expectations of Success or Failure Social Norms Attitudes Toward the Process of Trying Frequency of Past Trying of Behavior Recentness of Past Trying of Behavior States That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal. Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between Intent and Performance Such As:

24 7-24 Tracking Attitudes Over Time Attitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude Tracking Programs Include: Changes in Different Age Groups Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical Effects Changes in Different Age Groups Lifecycle, Cohort and Historical Effects Scenarios About the Future Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy Scenarios About the Future Future Plans and Confidence in the Economy Identification of Change Agents Identification of Change Agents


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