2AttitudesA lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues.Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an Attitude Object.An attitude is:Lasting because it tends to endure over time.General because it applies to more than a momentary event.Attitudes help us make all forms of choices such as:Very product-specific behaviors, andMore general consumption-related behaviors.
3The Functions of Attitudes By Identifying the Dominant Function a Product Serves for Consumers - What Benefits it Provides - Marketers Can Emphasize These Benefits in Communications & Packaging.UtilitarianReward andPunishmentKnowledgeNeed for Meaning,Order & StructureValue-ExpressiveConsumer’s Valuesor Self-ConceptAttitudeFunctionsEgo-DefensiveProtect PersonFrom Threats
4The ABC Model of Attitudes AffectWay a ConsumerFeelsComponents of anAttitudeBehaviorPerson’s Intentionsto DoCognitionConsumer’sBeliefs
5Hierarchies of Effects Standard Learning HierarchyATTITUDEBased on Cognitive Information ProcessingBeliefsAffectBehaviorLow-Involvement HierarchyATTITUDEBased on Behavioral Learning ProcessesBeliefsBehaviorAffectExperiential HierarchyATTITUDEBased on Hedonic ConsumptionAffectBehaviorBeliefs
6Attitudes Toward the Advertisement The Attitude Toward the Advertisement is Defined as a Predisposition to Respond in a Favorable or Unfavorable Manner to a Particular Advertising Stimulus During a Particular Exposure Occasion.Determinants Include:Attitude Toward AdvertiserDegree to Which the Ad Affects Viewers’ Arousal LevelsEvaluationsof theAd ExecutionItselfMood Evoked by the Ad
7Forming AttitudesAn Attitude can form in several different ways depending on the Hierarchy of Effects and how the attitude is learned.It can occur because of:Classical Conditioning, i.e. Attitude Object is paired with a catchy jingle.Instrumental Conditioning, i.e. consumption of the Attitude Object is reinforced.Complex Cognitive Process, i.e. teenager models behavior of friends and media figures.
8Forming Attitudes Levels of Commitment to an Attitude InternalizationForming AttitudesIdentificationLevels of Commitment to an AttitudeComplianceConsumers Value Harmony Among Their Thoughts,Feelings, and Behaviors, and They are Motivatedto Maintain Uniformity Among These Elements.Degree of CommitmentThe Consistency Principle
9Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony Among Values States that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take some action to resolve this “dissonance”.Theory focuses on situations in which two Cognitive Elements are inconsistent with one another.Cognitive Elements can be something that a person believes about himself, a behavior he performs, or an observation about his surroundings.Dissonance reduction can occur either by eliminating, adding, or changing elements.
10Social Judgment Theory Latitudes of Acceptance and RejectionAssimilationAttitude AnchorContrastSocial judgment theory assumes that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know or feel.Latitude ofAcceptanceLatitudes of Rejection
11Balance TheoryConsiders Relations Among Elements a Person Might Perceive as Belonging Together and Desires the Relations Among the Elements in a Triad to be Harmonious, or Balanced.A Person and His/ Her Perceptions (+ or - )TriadSome Other Person or ObjectAn Attitude ObjectMarketers May Use Celebrities to Endorse Products to Achieve Balance.
12Multiattribute Attitude Models Models Assume That a Consumer’s Attitude (Evaluation) of an Attitude Object Will Depend on the Beliefs He or She Has About Several or Many Attributes of the Object.AttributesBeliefsImportanceWeights
13The Fishbein ModelThe Fishbein Model is the Most Influential Multiattribute Model and It Measures Three Components of Attitudes:Salient BeliefsAboutthe Object ThatAre ConsideredDuring EvaluationObject-AttitudeLinkages, or TheProbability That aParticular Object Hasan ImportantAttributeEvaluation of Eachof theImportant Attributes
14Fishbein ModelFormed by integrating (summing) the separate evaluations of the salient beliefs (ei), weighted by the strength of each beliefs (bi), to create an overall evaluation or attitude (Ao).Ao = Sbiei
15How Beliefs Are Acquired Direct experience with product.Information processinginformation from outside sources (friends)Vicarious experienceInferences
17Strategic Implications of the Multiattribute Model Capitalize onRelative AdvantageStrengthen PerceivedProduct / AttributeLinkagesInfluence Competitors’RatingsAdd a New Attribute
18Attitude-Behavior Relationship Weak empirical relationship between attitude and behaviorWhy?Overall evaluation of product (Ao) not tied to situational factors while behaviors, in contrast, always occur in a situational context or are highly influenced by the environment.
19Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior The Extended Fishbein Model is Called the “Theory of Reasoned Action” and Includes the Following Modifications:IntentionsVersusBehaviorSocialPressureAttitudeTowardBuying
20The Theory of Reasoned Action Reflects the assumption that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative actions and choose the behavior which leads to the most desirable consequences.
22Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action DesignLocus of ControlBasic AssumptionsCorrespondenceTime-FrameAttitude Accessibility
23Theory of TryingStates That the Criterion of Behavior in the Reasoned Action Model Should be Replaced With Trying to Reach a Goal.Recognizes That Additional Factors Might Intervene Between Intent and Performance Such As:Amount of Control Over SituationExpectations of Success or FailureSocial NormsAttitudes Toward the Process of TryingFrequency of Past Trying of BehaviorRecentness of Past Trying of Behavior
24Tracking Attitudes Over Time Changes in Different Age GroupsLifecycle, Cohort and Historical EffectsTracking Attitudes Over TimeAttitude Tracking Programs Allow Researchers to Analyze Attitude Trends Over an Extended Period of Time. Some Dimensions To Include in Attitude Tracking Programs Include:Scenarios About the FutureFuture Plans and Confidence in the EconomyIdentification ofChange Agents