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4-1 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Chapter 4 Motivation and Values CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Global Edition 9e Michael R. Solomon
4-2 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Learning Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: It’s important for marketers to recognize that products can satisfy a range of consumer needs. The way we evaluate and choose a product depends upon our degree of involvement with the product, the marketing message, and/or the purchase situation.
4-3 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Learning Objectives (continued) Our deeply held cultural values dictate the types of products and services we seek out or avoid. Consumers vary in the importance they attach to worldly possessions, and this orientation in turn has an impact on their priorities and behaviors.
4-4 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education The Motivation Process Motivation refers to the process that leads people to behave as they do It occurs when a need is aroused The ad shows desired state and suggests a solution (purchase of equipment)
4-5 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Needs and Motivation Needs may be utilitarian or hedonic The desired end state is the goal The degree of arousal is drive Personal and cultural factors combine to create a want – one manifestation of a need Motivation is described in terms of strength and direction
4-6 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Motivational Strength Motivational strength: degree of willingness to expend energy to reach a goal Drive theory: biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal (e.g., hunger) Expectancy theory: behavior is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes
4-7 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education What Do We Need? Biogenic Needs Psychogenic Needs Utilitarian Needs Hedonic Needs
4-8 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Motivational Conflicts Goal valence (value): consumer will: Approach positive goal Avoid negative goal Example: Partnership for a Drug-Free America communicates negative consequences of drug addiction for those tempted to start
4-9 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Figure 4.1 Types of Motivational Conflicts Two desirable alternatives Cognitive dissonance Positive & negative aspects of desired product Guilt of desire occurs Facing a choice with two undesirable alternatives
4-10 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Specific Needs and Buying Behavior NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT Value personal accomplishment Place a premium on products that signify success (luxury brands, technology products) NEED FOR AFFILIATION Want to be with other people Focus on products that are used in groups (alcoholic beverages, sports bars) NEED FOR POWER Control one’s environment Focus on products that allow them to have mastery over surroundings (muscle cars, loud boom-boxes) NEED FOR UNIQUENESS Assert one’s individual identity Enjoy products that focus on their unique character (perfumes, clothing)
4-11 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Levels of Needs in the Maslow Hierarchy
4-12 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education An Appeal to One’s Need for Safety
4-13 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Discussion Create an advertising slogan for a pair of jeans, which stresses one of the levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
4-14 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Consumer Involvement Involvement: perceived relevance of an object based on one’s needs, values, and interests We get attached to products: “All in One” restaurant tattoo on consumer’s head Lucky magazine for women who obsess over shopping A man tried to marry his car when his fiancée dumped him
4-15 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Figure 4.3 Conceptualizing Involvement
4-16 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Levels of Involvement: From Inertia to Passion Inertia is consumption at the low end of involvement; decisions made out of habit (lack of motivation) Flow state occurs when consumers are truly involved Sense of control Concentration Mental enjoyment Distorted sense of time
4-17 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Cult Products
4-18 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Product Involvement Product involvement is the consumer’s level of interest in a product
4-19 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Discussion Interview each other about a particular celebrity. Describe your level of involvement with the “product” and devise some marketing opportunities to reach this group.
4-20 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Tactics to Boost Motivation to Process Appeal to consumers’ hedonic needs Use novel stimuli Use prominent stimuli Include celebrity endorsers Provide value customers appreciate Let customers make messages Create spectacles or performances Develop mobile experiences like alternate reality games
4-21 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Purchase Situation Involvement Purchase situation involvement: differences that occur when buying the same object for different contexts. Example: wedding gift For boss: purchase expensive vase to show that you want to impress boss For cousin you don’t like: purchase inexpensive vase to show you’re indifferent
4-22 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Table 4.1 Measuring Involvement To me (object to be judged) is: 1.important_:_:_:_:_:_:_unimportant 2.boring_:_:_:_:_:_:_interesting 3.relevant_:_:_:_:_:_:_irrelevant 4.exciting_:_:_:_:_:_:_unexciting 5.means nothing_:_:_:_:_:_:_means a lot 6.appealing_:_:_:_:_:_:_unappealing 7.fascinating_:_:_:_:_:_:_mundane 8.worthless_:_:_:_:_:_:_valuable 9.involving_:_:_:_:_:_:_uninvolving 10.not needed_:_:_:_:_:_:_needed
4-23 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Consumer Values Value: a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite Example: looking younger is preferable to looking older Products/services = help in attaining value- related goal We seek others that share our values/ beliefs Thus, we tend to be exposed to information that supports our beliefs
4-24 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Core Values Core values: values shared within a culture Enculturation: learning the beliefs and values of one’s own culture Acculturation: learning the value system and behaviors of another culture
4-25 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Discussion What do you think are the three to five core values that best describe Americans today? How are these core values relevant to the following product categories: Cars? Clothing? Higher education?
4-26 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Power distance Individualism Masculinity Uncertainty avoidance Long-term orientation
4-27 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Table 4.2 Terminal and Instrumental Values Instrumental ValueTerminal Value AmbitiousA comfortable life CapableA sense of accomplishment Self-controlledWisdom
4-28 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education List of Values (LOV) Identifies nine consumer segments based on values they endorse; and Relates each value to differences in consumption behaviors. Example: those who endorse sense of belonging read Reader’s Digest and TV Guide drink and entertain more, and prefer group activities
4-29 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Means-End Chain Model Very specific product attributes are linked at levels of increasing abstraction to terminal values Alternative means to attain valued end states Laddering technique uncovers consumers’ associations between specific attributes and general consequences
4-30 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Figure 4.4 Hierarchical Value Maps for Vegetable Oil in Three Countries
4-31 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Conscientious Consumerism Conscientious consumerism is a focus on personal health merging with a growing interest in global health LOHAS (lifestyles of health and sustainability): Consumers who: Worry about the environment Want products to be produced in a sustainable way Spend money to advance what they see as their personal development and potential
4-32 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Figure 4.5 Carbon Footprint Breakdown
4-33 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Materialism Materialism: the importance people attach to worldly possessions “The good life”...“He who dies with the most toys, wins” Materialists: value possessions for their own status and appearance Non-materialists: value possessions that connect them to other people or provide them with pleasure in using them
4-34 5/8/2015 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Chapter Summary Products address a wide range of consumer needs. How we evaluate a product depends on our involvement with that product, the marketing message, and the purchase situation. Our cultural values dictate the products we seek out and avoid. Consumers vary in how important possessions are to them.
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