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The Bible and History Biblical Inerrancy Creation Stories Creation Stories - Genesis 3Genesis 3 Bible WomenBible Women - TertullianTertullian Minimalists.

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Presentation on theme: "The Bible and History Biblical Inerrancy Creation Stories Creation Stories - Genesis 3Genesis 3 Bible WomenBible Women - TertullianTertullian Minimalists."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Bible and History Biblical Inerrancy Creation Stories Creation Stories - Genesis 3Genesis 3 Bible WomenBible Women - TertullianTertullian Minimalists vs. Maximalists Grounds for DisbeliefGrounds for Disbelief - FinkelsteinFinkelstein Deconstructing the Walls of Jericho

2 In 1997 William Dever, the Dean of Biblical Archeology, remarked to two leading minimalists, Thomas Thompson and Niels Peter Lemche, in a round-table discussion sponsored by the Biblical Archeology Review: “ If you guys think I or the Israeli archeologists are looking for the Israelite conquest [of Canaan] archeologically, you're wrong. We've given that up. We've given up the patriarchs. That's a dead issue. But the rise of the Israelite state [of David and Solomon] is not...”

3 1200’s B.C.E. - RamsesRamses Politics:Exodus, Israel wanders in Sinai 40 years, Conquest of Promised Land, 12 tribes ruled by Judges, Prophets, Priests Conquest of Promised Land Religion: Two early religious centers: (1) Shiloh in the North - Tabernacle, Ark of the Covenant/Tablets/10 Commandments Levites - Priestly family of Moses (2) Hebron in the South - Capital of Judah, Zadokites - Priestly family of Aaron Bible:None written - Ballads, folk tales, victory songs passed down as oral traditions

4 1000 B.C.E. - King DavidKing David Politics:Priest/Prophet Samuel anoints Saul as King; Saul Infringes on priestly authority; Samuel & Shiloh priests Designate David as King; Saul massacres all Shiloh priests except Abiathar; David unites and rules 12 tribes, moves Capital of Judah from Hebron to Jerusalem Religion:David makes Jerusalem his religious center moves the Ark of the Covenant from Shiloh, appoints two chief priests in Jerusalem: (1) Abiathar of Shiloh (descendant of Moses) (2) Zadok of Hebron (descendant of Aaron) Bible:Still none written; Oral traditions continue

5 960 B.C.E.--King Solomon Politics:David dies; David’s sons Solomon and Adonijah contend for the throne; Zadok supports Solomon; Abiathar supports Adonijah; Solomon becomes King Religion:Solomon builds the Temple in Jerusalem, moves the Ark of the Covenant to the Holy of Holies in the Temple, recognizes Zadok and Aaronid Priests as official priesthood of his Temple, expels Abiathar and Shiloh Priests from JerusalemTemple in Jerusalem Bible:Court History of David (2 Samuel/1 Kings)

6 920 B.C.E.--Civil War in Israel Politics:Solomon dies; Israel splits into North/South; Prophet Ahijah of Shiloh incites 10 tribes to secede & form Northern Kingdom of Israel; Ahijah designates Jeroboam King of Israel; Two southern tribes Judah & Benjamin, form Kingdom of Judah under RehoboamNorth/South Religion:Jeroboam establishes two religious centers in Israel: Dan at top and Beth-El at bottom; Places two Golden Calves in these shrines, Identifies Yahweh with Canaanite deity El, whose symbol was a Golden Calf; Jeroboam, like Solomon, betrays Ahijah/Shiloh priests, excludes them from both of his new shrines

7 Shiloh Priests Excluded from the Shrines in the North and the South “ Since the tribe of Levi had no territory of its own as the other tribes had, the Levites of Shiloh and elsewhere in Israel had only two choices: they could move to Judah and try to find a place in the priestly hierarchy there, or they could remain in Israel and make whatever living they could, perhaps performing various religious services outside of the two major religious centers, perhaps depending on others’ generosity. If the priests of Shiloh were indeed descendents of Moses, their present status, or lack of status, in both kingdoms must have been bitter for them. They had fallen from leadership of the nation to poor, landless, dependency.” (Who Wrote the Bible, by R.E. Friedman)

8 722 B.C.E. - Assyria Destroys Northern Kingdom of IsraelAssyria Politics:After 200 years of rivalry between Northern Kingdom/Israel & Southern Kingdom/Judah, Assyrians Destroy Israel, kill/deport people; Ten Tribes disappear; Northern Kingdom repopulated with pagans, later Samaritans Religion:Judah & Israel split over worship of God; Judah thought Israel too close to Canaanite deity bull-El, would be punished by Yahweh Bible:J source written in royal court of Judah; E written by Shiloh Mushite priest in Israel (Golden Calf story in Exodus 32:1--33:11)Exodus 32:1--33:11

9 715 B.C.E.--Hezekiah King of Judah Politics:Judah is a small, weak, vassal of Assyria; King’s power, stature diminished; forced to honor pagan idols, criticized by the people Religion:Hezekiah’s reform - Centralize Temple Cult Eliminate all religious practice except in the Jerusalem Temple; Destroy idols & altars “high places” of Yahweh outside Jerusalem Sacrifice now a sacred act done only by an appointed priest at the official altar; priest receives a portion (tithe) of the sacrifice Bible:J and E combined as a single narrative: YHWH and Elohim become ONE Lord GodJ and E combined as a single narrative

10 The Centralization of the Cult “The centralization of religion meant that if you wanted to eat lamb you could not sacrifice your sheep at home or at a local sanctuary. You had to bring the sheep to the priest at the Temple altar in Jerusalem, which was now the only sanctioned location where they could conduct the sacrifices and receive their tithes.” (R. E. Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible, p.92)

11 640 BCE - Josiah Becomes King Politics:Assyrian weakness & rise of Babylon allows Josiah to gain more independence, territory; Egypt invades Judah; Josiah is killed Religion:Josiah renews Hezekiah’s reforms; destroys idols, high places; Centralizes Temple Cult brings all priests to Jerusalem to assist the Temple priests; people forced to bring all sacrifices to the Jerusalem Temple altar Bible: 622 Hilkiah the priest finds a “Scroll of the Torah” BCE in the Temple of Yahweh; [D - Deuteronomy]; Purpose was to justify Josiah’s reform & to secure the position of the Levitical priestsScroll of the TorahDeuteronomy

12 Josiah the Messiah 1 Kings 3:1-31 Kings 3:1-3; Josiah prophesied 200 years earlier 2 Kings 23:42 Kings 23:4; Josiah eliminates YHWH’s wife 2 Kings 23:1-32 Kings 23:1-3; Josiah establishes a New Covenant 2 Kings 23:21-232 Kings 23:21-23; Josiah institutes the Passover 2 Kings 23:28-302 Kings 23:28-30; Josiah the Messiah... Killed at the Battle of Armageddon 609 BC 2 Kings 22:1-22 Kings 22:1-2; Josiah graded high by the Priests 2 Kings 23:252 Kings 23:25; Josiah the greatest Messiah of All

13 Middle East VII BCE Babylonians Judah Alliance Assyrian Empire Alliance 612 BCE Assyria Falls 609 BCE Josiah Killed

14 587 B.C.E.--Babylon destroys Judah: Babylonian Captivity BeginsBabylon Politics:Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon destroys Judah, Jerusalem, Temple; people killed, deported to Babylon, flee to Egypt; Ark of the Covenant lost forever; House of David dethroned; obscure period, little evidence, few sources; 50 yrs. sadness, bitterness, guilt, nostalgia Religion:No Temple, cult, sacrifice; Rival Priesthoods powerless--nothing to fight over; forced to reevaluate relationship to homeland/God Bible:JE, D exist; P being written in Babylon

15 538 B.C.E.-- Persia Conquers BabylonPersia Politics:Cyrus allows exiles to return home, rebuild Temple; Zerubbabel leads exiles back from Babylon, disappears from history; No more mention of the Ark of the Covenant or the House of David; Prophecy diminishes Religion:Second Temple completed in 516 B.C.E. High Priest and entire Temple Priesthood are Zadokite Aaronids; Mushite Levites demoted to being assistants of Aaronids Bible:JE, D, P being put together in Babylon... under the influence of Babylonian Science and Persian Zoroastrian Dualism

16 Double, Double, Toil and Trouble J E D P BS Z Babylon

17 458 B.C.E. - Ezra Comes to Judah Politics:Judah now a province of the Persian Empire ruled by the priest Ezra & political governor Nehemiah instead of Kings; Ezra/Nehemiah under the authority of the Persian Emperor Religion:Centralization of the Cult finally achieved; One God/One Temple, No other religious centers allowed; Ezra enforces Sabbath, dissolves intermarriages with non-Jews Bible:Ezra brings “Torah of Moses” from Babylon: The Pentateuch of the Bible - Noah – SatanNoahSatan

18 Ezra Reads His Law Ezra called a public assembly at Jerusalem’s water gate on the fall holiday, when all Judeans were in Jerusalem. He read the scroll of the Torah to the assembly. This was followed by a covenant ceremony: the people renewed their commitment to their God and to their pact with him as written in Ezra’s Torah. “The period of restoration, the age of the second Temple, appears... to have been a time of dedication to the book as never before. Why? Presumably because political authority was now in the hands of the priests who had more of an interest in it than the Kings had had.” (Who Wrote the Bible, p. 160, by Richard E. Friedman)

19 538-330 B.C.E.--The Persian Period With the arrival of the Persian Empire on the world stage the scene is set for the appearance of two cultures which form the foundation of our own civilization:Persian Empire JUDAISM and HELLENISM 538 B.C.E. Persian emperors permit Judeans to return to Israel from their captivity in Babylon and to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple of Yahweh ( completed 516) 490-480 B.C.E. Persian Wars - Greece invaded by these same emperors; Persians defeated and expelled from Greece - Battles of Marathon, Thermopylae, SalamisGreeceMarathonThermopylaeSalamis

20 480-330 B.C.E. - INCUBATION The Temple State in Israel Second Temple in Jerusalem; Dwelling-place of Yahweh Monarchy suppressed; Priestly Hierarchy rules Theocratic Judean Temple State Torah of Ezra is Law of the land; Purity/Holiness rules govern life through Sacrificial System Temple State provides Security to its people in a local society, state, & universe created and maintained by Yahweh The City State in Athens Parthenon in Athens; dedicated to Athena, goddess of Wisdom Kings/Tyrants ousted; Elected officials govern Democratic City State of Athens. Civil Laws of Solon Codified; the Individual Citizen emancipated Equality of Political Rights Golden Age of Pericles: Anxiety Classical Humanism, Science, Philosophy, Individualism, Arts, Independence, Holism

21 No Professional Greek Priests “ Greece had no professional priesthood ; there was no such thing as a priest whose lifework was to dedicate himself to the service of the gods and to guard their temples and other property. Priests were citizens who besides their activities in civic life had the task of seeing to the cult of a god and looking after his temple. Whereas in the East literary activity, tradition and speculation and such beginnings of science as existed were in the hands of the priesthood, all that was, in Greece, the business of laymen, thinkers and poets from the beginning. The significance of this is immense, for it and it alone was the prerequisite for free thought and for the rise of philosophy and science.” M. P. Nilsson, Greek Piety, Oxford, 1948, p.4

22 330-30 B.C.E.--The Hellenistic Period 330 B.C.E.Alexander the Great invades/overthrows the Persian Superpower, spreads Greek culture throughout the East; implements Idea of One World based on Greek Culture, Science, ArtAlexander the Great 323 B.C.E.Alexander dies; Empire divided into 4 states Hellenistic Kingdoms dominate Middle East; Judea in between Syrian & Egyptian Greeks; Judaism becoming progressively Hellenized Hellenistic Kingdoms 165 B.C.E.Maccabean Wars; Hellenizers vs. Judaizers; Jews struggle to preserve ethnic & religious identity against Greeks, Romans; Qumran Community established;Dead Sea ScrollsMaccabean Wars

23 Hellenized Roman Empire Prevails in East and WestRoman Empire 63 B.C.E. Judea becomes a Roman Province; PompeyJudea becomes a Roman Province 30 B.C.E.Cleopatra of Egypt is the last Hellenistic ruler Egypt falls to Caesar Augustus; Pax RomanaCleopatra of Egypt 30 C.E.Jesus lives as Jews struggle against RomeJews struggle against Rome 70 C.E. 1st Jewish Revolt crushed by Romans; Idea of Yahweh as protector of Israelite Temple- State is shattered; Jerusalem, Priesthood, Sacrificial System destroyed; Judaism and Christianity homeless in hostile Roman world1st Jewish Revolt crushed by Romans

24 Judaea Capta

25 70 C.E. -- A Major Turning Point In Western Religious History Judaism Pharisees survive; Jews regroup under Rabbis in Synagogues; OT Canonized at Jamnia (90 CE)Jews regroup under Rabbis in Synagogues Jews do not adapt--suffer the consequences of separatism 2nd Jewish Revolt under Bar Kochba crushed (135 C.E.) Demise of Temple State Idea Christianity Peter and Paul killed by Nero; Priestly Hierarchy assumes power; Gospels written Priestly Hierarchy Church adapts by transforming into a Hellenized Mystery Cult 325 C.E. Constantine the Great legalizes Christianity; soon becomes state cult of Rome

26 THE OLD TESTAMENT CANON From the Greek  or “measuring stick” a) a tool used to determine proper measurement b) rule, model, standard, paradigm c) List of authoritative, inspired Scriptural Books The Collection of Books making up the Modern Christian Old Testament /Hebrew Scriptures are thought to have been “canonized” by the Pharisaic Rabbis of Jamnia in the 90’s

27 Dead Sea Scrolls Facts a) Total of 202 biblical mss found at Qumran Only one-fourth of the total number of mss found b) The other three-fourths were mostly: 1) Apocrypha in the Greek Septuagint, not in the Hebrew - Tobit, Sirach, Letter of Jeremiah, Psalm 151Apocrypha 2) Pseudepigrapha Books falsely ascribed to biblical figures Enoch, Jubilees, Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs, and about 50 more books attributed to biblical figures like Moses, Noah, David, Enoch, ElijahPseudepigrapha

28 THE “BEST SELLERS” AT QUMRAN 1) Psalms (36) 2) Deuteronomy (29) 3) Isaiah (21) 4) ENOCH (20) ENOCH 5) Exodus (17) 6) JUBILEES (15-16) Genesis (15) 7) Leviticus (13) 8) Numbers, 12 Prophets, Daniel (8 each) 9) Jeremiah & Ezekiel (6 each) 10) 1-2 Sam, Job, Song of Sol, Ruth, Lamentations (4 each) 11) TEMPLE SCROLL, Judges, 1-2 Kings, Ecclesiastes (3 each) 12) Joshua & Proverbs (2 each) 13) Ezra & 1-2 Chronicles (1 each) 14) Esther & Nehemiah (0)

29 The Significance of the Dead Sea Scrolls for the Canon of the OT a) The Dead Sea Scrolls are a time capsule, a snapshot, of the Hebrew Scriptures at the time of JesusDead Sea Scrolls b) There was NO BIBLE - NO Authoritative Collection only assorted biblical books - many Non-Canonical c) The Canon of the Bible had not been put together yet! The Rabbis of Jamnia finally gave us our OT ca 90 AD d) Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls Qumran or Temple Library? 1) Copper ScrollCopper Scroll 2) Archaeology of Qumran: De Vaux vs. DonceelArchaeology of Qumran: De Vaux vs. Donceel 3) Same kinds of Scrolls found elsewhere, MasadaMasada

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