Presentation on theme: "1865 - 1877. Issues and Perspectives With which of the following statements do you agree? Write 1 – 2 sentences explaining your choice. A. Forgiveness."— Presentation transcript:
Issues and Perspectives
With which of the following statements do you agree? Write 1 – 2 sentences explaining your choice. A. Forgiveness should be our top priority: Now that the Civil War is over, the Union must be restored quickly so that the nation can begin to heal. After all, haven’t we all suffered enough? B. Justice should be our top priority: The South is responsible for the war and should be punished for its crimes. Besides, if we are too easy on them, how can we trust that these traitors won’t just rebel again?
Other than the tragedy of lost lives, the effects of the war were hardly noticeable in the North. Few battles had been fought there, so towns and cities were basically unharmed. Life, in fact, had changed little, even while fighting was going on. In addition, the Northern economy continued to boom. It was a completely different story, however, in the South...
“Total War” had destroyed 2/3 of the South’s shipping industry about 9,000 miles of railroads many bridges, canals, and levees.
Homes... factories... entire cities lay in ruins.
Confederate currency was now worthless, destroying the savings of thousands. About 1/4 of the adult white male population died in the war. Millions of acres of land (the South’s most valuable asset) had been abandoned or confiscated by the Union Army.
Some 4 million African Americans were now free, but they have no money, no property, no education and they must now compete with poor white laborers for scarce jobs.
The years following the Civil War would have to be devoted to putting the nation back together and rebuilding the devastated South. As people all over the country considered how this should be done, several difficult questions were raised. People’s answers to these questions usually depended on their position in society. For example: a Confederate general, an ordinary Confederate soldier, a Union soldier, a widow – Northern or Southern, a Northern Congressman, a former Confederate Congressman, a white factory worker, a small farmer, a white plantation owner, and a former slave all would answer many of these questions very differently.
What steps, if any, will rebel states need to take before they can re- enter the Union? Will citizenship be restored automatically, or will it have to be earned back? If so, how? How should we deal with leaders of the old Confederate government?
Should Confederate military leaders receive a pardon, or should they be punished for fighting against the U.S.? Should ordinary Confederate soldiers receive the same treatment as high- ranking officers? Will Freedmen (former slaves) have equal rights? If so, how will those rights be enforced?
What should be done with the roughly $100 million worth of Southern property that was either abandoned or confiscated during the war? Who will be responsible for rebuilding (both physically and economically)?
President Lincoln hoped to make the South’s return to the Union as quick and easy as possible. More than a year before the war ended, he outlined his plan in the “Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction” (a.k.a the 10% Plan) Congressmen known as “Radical Republicans” thought Lincoln’s plan was far too lenient.
Working in a small group, you will be asked to answer some of the difficult questions of Reconstruction from one or more of the following perspectives: Radical Republicans Moderate Republicans and Northern Democrats Southerners
Presidential vs. Congressional
Presidential Reconstruction (1865 – 1867) Congressional Reconstruction (1867 – 1877) Requirements for States, Pardons, Property, and Voting states had to hold a convention to rewrite their constitution (delegates must swear oath of loyalty to U.S.) ratify the 13 th Amendment repeal secession cancel Confederate war debt pardons granted to those who had taken loyalty oath; high-ranking officials and those who owned more than $20,000 in property, however, also had to send a personal appeal to President Johnson for a pardon once pardoned, all property (except slaves) would be restored voting rights given to men who had taken the loyalty oath and who had been eligible to vote in 1861
Presidential Reconstruction (1865 – 1867) Congressional Reconstruction (1867 – 1877) Enforcement (How would the federal government make sure that states met the requirements?) provisional governor appointed by the President would organize state conventions and supervise the drafting of the new state constitution noncompliance sometimes ignored (i.e. Mississippi did not ratify the 13 th Amendment, but still readmitted under this plan)did not ratify former Confederate states (except Tennessee) were split into 5 military districts each district was run by a Union general military in charge of voter registration and elections Rights of Freedmen States not required to guarantee social or political equality to Freedmen. Left the door open for legalized discrimination and oppression; Southern states soon began passing black codes. black codes
Presidential Reconstruction (1865 – 1867) Congressional Reconstruction (1867 – 1877) Rights of Freedmen States not required to guarantee social or political equality to Freedmen. Left the door open for legalized discrimination and oppression; Southern states soon began passing black codes. black codes passed 14 th Amendment, making African Americans citizens; forced Southern states to ratify it. forced states to include voting rights for African American men in their constitutions; later passed the 15 th Amendment (just in case ) voted to expand the Freedmen’s Bureau. outlaws Black Codes
Presidential Reconstruction (1865 – 1867) Congressional Reconstruction (1867 – 1877) Outcome and Reactions December, 1865 – Johnson announced that Reconstruction was complete. Southern states sent reps to Congress (including 58 former CSA Congressmen and 4 CSA generals; former Vice President of the CSA was elected to US Senate – all received pardons from Johnson) Republican Congressmen (both radical & moderate) were outraged; they passed a series of acts that became known collectively as “Congressional Reconstruction” President Johnson vetoed Congress’ Reconstruction Act. Congress overrode the President’s veto and tried to impeach him.
Laws restricting the civil rights of former slaves. Examples from Mississippi include: Anti-miscegenation (1865) – declared interracial marriage a felony (life in prison) Railroad Segregation (1865) – It was “unlawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to ride in any first-class passenger car used by white persons.”
Congress reacted to these laws by passing the Civil Rights Act of The Codes also energized the drive for the 14 th Amendment, which extended citizenship to anyone “born or naturalized” in the U.S., and the 15 th Amendment, which gave African American men the right to vote. Ratification of the 14 th Amendment (and later the 15 th Amendment) became requirements for readmission into the Union under Congress’ Reconstruction plan.
ECONOMICSOCIAL Problems POLITICAL Problems
(A) State and local governments faced the challenge of rebuilding a region destroyed by war. (G) Many Southern women and children suffered from malnutrition and illness. (M) State and local governments needed to increase state spending at a time when few financial resources existed.
PROBLEMRESPONSE State and local governments faced the challenge of rebuilding a region destroyed by war. State and local gov’t begin public works programs. Many Southern women and children suffered from malnutrition and illness State and local gov’t provide social services for families in need.
PROBLEMRESPONSE ... needed to increase state spending at a time when few financial resources existed. State and local gov’t raise taxes.
(E) African American families were often separated under the slavery system. (I) Nearly 80% of African American adults were illiterate. (L) African Americans were confronted with racist laws restricting their newfound freedom.
PROBLEMRESPONSE African American families were often separated under the slavery system. African Americans search for loved ones; Freedmen’s Bureau helps reunite families. Nearly 80% of African American adults were illiterate. African Americans organize schools, colleges, and universities.
PROBLEMRESPONSE (L) African Americans were confronted with racist laws restricting their newfound freedom. They vote; They organize conventions demanding equal rights; They run for public office
African American men gained suffrage under which Amendment? Qualified African American voters flocked to the polls (90% in some areas). 9 out of 10 supported the Republican Party.
HIRAM REVELS (R) JOSEPH RAINEY (R) Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (Mississippi, 1870) Elected to the United States Senate (North Carolina, 1870)
1865 – Slavery is abolished with the ratification of the 13 th Amendment 1868 – African Americans are guaranteed citizenship under the 14 th Amendment 1870 – African American men guaranteed the right to vote under the 15 th Amendment; First African American representatives elected to U.S. Congress 2008 – Barack Obama becomes the first African American President (138 years after Joseph Rainey – a former slave – took his seat in Congress)
PROBLEMRESPONSE (D) Many white southerners refused to accept equal rights for African Americans. Some white legislators pass laws restricting rights of freedmen; Some use violence and intimidation to keep freedmen from exercising their rights Ku Klux Klan
(C) African Americans had no land and, therefore no means of supporting themselves. (F) The planter class wanted to restore the plantation system.
PROBLEMRESPONSE (C) African Americans had no land and, therefore no means of supporting themselves. volunteer organizations provide financial assistance; moved to cities, to the North, and to the West; many became sharecroppers;
Consequences How did the sharecropping system make it hard for small farmers to improve their standard of living? How: Landowners dictate crop, & provide land, seed & housing in return for a share of the harvest; Sharecropper buys tools, food, & other supplies on credit
Landowners dictate crop, & provide land, seed & housing in return for a share of the harvest; Sharecropper buys tools, food, & other supplies on credit.
PROBLEMRESPONSE (F) The planter class wanted to restore the plantation system. Sharecropping keeps croppers in a perpetual cycle of debt
Fraud Bribery corruption Bank failure Unemployment The money question
Is the man in this cartoon shown in a positive or negative light? How can you tell?
1865 – Slavery is abolished with the ratification of the 13 th Amendment 1868 – African Americans are guaranteed citizenship under the 14 th Amendment 1870 – African American men guaranteed the right to vote under the 15 th Amendment; First African American representatives elected to U.S. Congress 1877 – Reconstruction comes to an end; troops withdrawn from the South; Democrats regain control of state government; Jim Crow laws are passed.