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The Prophet Muhammad Chapter 8. 8.3 Muhammad’s Early Life 1. Birth, orphan, trader, marriage  Few people noticed Muhammad’s birth  Poor family, became.

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Presentation on theme: "The Prophet Muhammad Chapter 8. 8.3 Muhammad’s Early Life 1. Birth, orphan, trader, marriage  Few people noticed Muhammad’s birth  Poor family, became."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Prophet Muhammad Chapter 8

2 8.3 Muhammad’s Early Life 1. Birth, orphan, trader, marriage  Few people noticed Muhammad’s birth  Poor family, became an orphan  Became a trader  At 25, a widow named Khadijah proposed marriage  They had several children, including a daughter named Fatimah

3 What was Muhammad’s occupation? 1.Herder 2.Teacher 3.Farmer 4.Trader

4 8.4 The Call to Prophethood 1. Cave, Gabriel, Allah, Qur’an  Spiritual man, often prayed in the mtns.  While praying in a cave, the angel Gabriel appeared to him  For 22 yrs, he listened to messages Gabriel brought from God, whom Arabs call Allah  Muhammad preached faith in one God & the values: compassion, honesty, & justice  Gradually, a small group of followers formed, who called themselves Muslims  His writings were later written down and became the Qur’an

5 How did Muhammad learn that he was to be a prophet? 1.Saw it in a dream 2.Told by the angel Gabriel 3.Allah spoke to him through a burning bush 4.His uncle told him

6 8.5 Teaching Meets with Rejection 1. Reject, followers, boycott, Night Journey  He began to preach his message to the Makkans  Most Makkans rejected his teachings, but Muhammad did gain followers  Powerful Makkans ordered a boycott of his clan to make them reject Islam  It lasted for 3 years but Muslims didn’t give up their faith  In 619, he described being taken on a winged horse to visit Jerusalem & the 7 levels of heaven & to meet earlier prophets & God  Called the Night Journey

7 How did most Makkans feel about Muhammad’s preachings? 1.They eagerly accepted 2.They didn’t care 3.They rejected it

8 8.6 Migration to Medina to the End of Life 1. Madinah, People of the Book, battles, Last Sermon  People in Madinah invited him to live there & promised to protect him  He created a Muslim community in Madinah that respected people of other faiths  Christians & Jews were to be treated w/ respect as “People of the Book”

9 Once in Madinah, Muhammad preached… 1.tolerance of other religions 2.that everyone must be convert to Islam 3.that belief in Allah was not important 4.that Hinduism and Islam were very similar

10 Christians & Jews were respected and referred to as 1.Polytheists 2.People to be feared 3.People of the Qu’ran 4.People of the Book

11 8.6 Migration to Medina to the End of Life 3. Summary:  Christians & Jews were to be treated w/ respect as “People of the Book”  Fighting broke out b/t Makkans & Muslims  After several battles, his army captured Makkah w/o a fight  He destroyed idols at the Ka’ba & dedicated the shrine to Allah  He forgave his enemies, & the war ended  Before his death, he delivered his Last Sermon  He told Muslims to be faithful & to treat each other well

12 Fighting broke out between the Muslims and 1.Makkans 2.Jews 3.People of Medina 4.Christians

13 Once Muhammad’s army won control of Makkah, he dedicated this place to Allah 1.Bazaar 2.Ka’ba 3.The cave where he used to pray 4.Madinah

14 8.7 & 8.8 Four Caliphs & Umayyad Dynasty  Most of Arabia was under Muslim control when he died  After his death, caliphs unified Arabia & expanded across the Middle East and N. Africa  The fourth caliph was his son-in-law, Ali  After Ali’s death, Sunnis & Shi’a split in a dispute over who should be the next caliph  This division continues today.  In 661, the Umayyad dynasty moved the Muslim capital to Damascus  Muslims expanded into India, central Asia, & Europe  A loss at the Battle of Tours in France in 732 ended expansion into Europe, but Muslims kept control of Spain, which became a great center of culture & learning

15 Following his death, Arabia 1.Became unified 2.Fell into chaos 3.Was attacked by the French 4.Became known as the Far East

16 Muslims split into two major sects, Shi’a and 1.Sunni 2.Saudi 3.Makkans 4.Syrians

17 Muslims split into Sunni & Shi’a due to a dispute over 1.Muhammad’s property 2.Access to the Ka’ba 3.The official language of the Qu’ran 4.Who should be the next caliph

18 The Battle of Tours was significant because 1.It was the first battle of Muslim expansion 2.It marked the furthest extent of the Muslim empire 3.Muhammad died in this battle 4.The Muslims defeated the French

19 This city in Spain was an important center for learning & culture 1.Madrid 2.Makkah 3.Cordova 4.Barcelona

20 Flow Map Your Life Four major events in your life

21 Flow Map The Prophet Muhammad Four major events in the life of Muhammad

22 Flow Map Four major events in the life of Muhammad Migration to Madinah

23 Processing 9 (Photo Story) 5 Slides. Each slide should have – Appropriate image – 1-2 sentence caption explaining an important event in Muhammad’s life Slide 1 = Title slide Slides 2-5 = Four phases of Muhammad’s life 6 points / slide = 30 points total Digital or by hand. No images on flash drive = no laptop


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