4 Arabia, the Birthplace of Islam The Arabian Peninsula is a desert region with little fertile soil or farmingMost Arabs lived in nomadic desert tribes which were centered around families & were ruled by clansArabia was not united under a single gov’t, but Arabs did have a common language (Arabic)Most Arabs were polytheistic
5 By 600, many Arabs had settled down into communities, but many remained nomadic.
6 Arabia, the Birthplace of Islam Arabia was the intersection of 3 continents (Africa, Asia, & Europe) so it was an important region for trade & had lots of cultural diffusionOne of the wealthiest trade cities in Arabia was Mecca
7 Arab polytheists made pilgrimages to Mecca to visit the Ka’aba The concept of monotheism was around on the Arabian Peninsula also; Christians and Jews lived there.Arab polytheists made pilgrimages to Mecca to visit the Ka’aba
9 The Early Life of Muhammad Muhammad’s early life:He was born in Mecca in 570 into a poor clan, was orphaned at a young age, & was raised by his grandparentsHe received little schoolingAs an adult, Muhammad became an honest & successful merchantHe married a wealthy widow named Khadijah & started a family
11 Mohammad & Islam Muhammad created Islam: Muhammad’s work brought him into contact with Jewish & Christian merchantsIn 610, Muhammad was told by the angel Gabriel that he was a prophet sent to Earth by GodHe began preaching a new monotheistic faith called Islam (“surrender to God” or Allah)After much soul-searching, Muhammad came to believe that the Lord who spoke to him through Gabriel was Allah. Muhammad became convinced that he was the last of the prophets. He began to teach that Allah was the one and only God and that all other gods must be abandoned. People who agreed to this basic principle of Islam were called Muslims. In Arabic, Islam (ihs•LAHM) means “submission to the will of Allah.” Muslim (MOOZ•lim) means “one who has submitted.” Muhammad’s wife, Khadijah, and several close friends and relatives were his first followers.
13 Islam Basic beliefs of Islam: Followers of Islam are called Muslims who believe in one God, called AllahAllah is the same God worshiped by Jews & ChristiansMuslims believe Muhammad was the last of God’s prophetsThe teachings of Mohammed were written down in the Qur'an (Koran), the holy book of Islam
14 Qur’anThe Qur’an was written in Arabic. Only Arabic could be used in worship.The Qur’an expressed the Sunna, or Muhammad’s best model for proper living.It also contained the Shari’a, a system of laws that regulate family life, moral conduct & business and community life of Muslims.
15 Islamic BeliefsTo be a Muslim, all believers have to carry out five duties.FaithPrayer – 5 times a dayAlms – portion of their wealth to the poorFasting – the whole month of RamadanPilgrimage – go to Mecca 1 time in your life.
16 Other Rules No pork No wine or alcohol Could have up to 4 wives – all had to be believersFriday afternoon worship
17 How did some people respond to Muhammad’s new religion?
18 The Hijrah Reactions to Islam: By 613, Muhammad began preaching his new ideas in MeccaSome people were attracted to IslamBut, many people feared Muhammad’s growing popularity & that Mecca would lose its status as a holy city
19 Islam Grows in MedinaAfter years of attacks, Muhammad & his followers fled to MedinaThis migration was known as the HijrahIn Medina, Muhammad gained new converts who put Islam above their families & clansHe taught respect for Christians & Jews (“People of the Book”)
20 IslamIn 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with 10,000 troops & conquered the cityHe destroyed the god statues in the Ka’aba, leaving only the statue for AllahThis time, the people in Mecca converted to IslamIn 632, Muhammad died
21 The Islamic Empire After Muhammad, Islamic leaders created an empire: The Islamic Empire had well-trained troops that conquered nearby regionsThe massive empire led to great wealth for Muslims & new opportunities to spread Islam
22 Closure ActivityPut away your notes & answer the following questions as a class.
23 True or FalseJudaism, Christianity & Islam believe in heaven and hell, and a day of judgment.TRUE
24 Fill in the Blank_________________ believed that he was the last and greatest of the prophets.Muhammad
25 True or FalseMuhammad believed that Allah was the same god as the God of the Christians and Jews.TRUE
26 Short Answer How do Muslims view Jesus? As a prophet, not the son of God.
27 Fill in the BlankTo Muslims the Qur’an was the ________ book and Muhammad was the ________ prophet.Last & Last
28 True of FalseJews, Christians, and Muslims believe in the ten commandments.TRUE
29 Short Answer According to Muslims, who are the “people of the book?” Jews & Christians
30 True of FalseMuslim law requires leaders to extend religious tolerance to Christians and Jews.TRUE