Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3: HUMAN ENVIRONMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1UNIT 3: HUMAN ENVIRONMENT ECONOMIC CHANGEUNIT 3: HUMAN ENVIRONMENTSETTLEMENT CHANGEEMPLOYMENT SECTORS(leading to improvements in technology)Increasing level of developmentPRIMARYThe extraction of raw materials from the ground or sea.FarmingMiningSECONDARYManufacturing of goods using raw materials from the primary sector.Car manufacturingOil refiningTERTIARYSelling of services and skills.TeachingTourismQUATERNARYProvision of information services – hi-tech.ComputingResearch and DevelopmentEMPLOYMENT STRUCTURES IN THE UKDECLINE INPRIMARY SECTOR:DECLINE IN SECONDARY SECTOR:GROWTH INTERTIARY SECTOR:Depletion of Resources Raw materials used up or inaccessible making them expensive to access.Cheap ImportsAs raw materials are expensive to access, it is cheaper to import them.Mechanisation Improvements in technology and new machinery means less workers neededSocial ChangeWorkers prefer better paid and less physically demanding tertiary sector jobs.Cheaper labour in LICs which served to encourage manufacturing industries to locate there.Higher disposable incomes Disposable incomes are higher leading to a a rise in luxury services e.g. gym membership.Decrease in Primary and Secondary sector employmentEmployment in these sectors decreases so people must be employed in the tertiary sector.Development of new technologiesAdvances in computing and telecommunications . More people shopping online = jobs created (950,000 employed by 2008).Demographic changesWealthy retired people with the time and money to spend on tertiary sector services (the ‘grey pound’) e.g. Saga holidays.HOW HAVE DURHAM’S FUNCTIONS CHANGED OVER TIME?STRATEGIC: St. Cuthbert’s body brought and castle built (1072) to maintain order.INDUSTRIAL: 14th and 15th centuries – wool and leather industries developed.ADMINISTRATIVE: Expansion of university. Administrative offices built e.g. National Savings Office, 1961 and County Hall.TOURIST: Castle and cathedral declared World Heritage Site in 1987.StrategicA settlement which has strategic advantages e.g. ability to be easily defended in the event of an attack.IndustrialSettlement focused on industry that is likely to be heavily dominated by primary and secondary industry employment.AdministrativeFocus on providing administrative services for the local area – where local government offices, etc. might be found.Tourist ResortA settlement that is likely to have a high number of features that might be likely to appeal to tourists or provide services that tourists would need.HOW HAS COUNTER-URBANISATION CHANGED RURAL AREAS?Movement out of cities to rural areas (HICs). E.g. Morpeth.PROBLEMS: Conflict between local residents and newcomers / Migrants commute daily causing congestion and pollution / House prices rise – locals can’t afford them / Migrants don’t support local businesses.BENEFITS: Local schools gain pupils and can stay open / Local services are supported e.g. pubs / Old and derelict buildings renovated.HOW HAS DEPOPULATION CHANGED RURAL AREAS?Decrease in population of remote rural areas due to people choosing to leave these areas.Scottish Highlands – Ageing Population: Decline in population for people aged 40 and under.South West England – Loss of Post Offices: 2001 = 45% of people in rural areas did NOT live within 4km of a Post Office. Many Post Offices closing in rural areas as they are not profitable. In Cornwall, 25% of Post Offices are set to close.South West England – Distance from Hospitals: In Cornwall, the only major hospital is situated in Plymouth which is actually in Devon! If you are a patient suffering with cancer, you would have to travel up to 100 miles for treatment.Lake District – School Closures: Decline in rural services has seen closure of many primary schools such as Rushland School in the Lake District which closed in 2006.SECONDARY SECTOR GROWTH IN CHINACAUSESPhysicalRaw materials – China has a great wealth of natural resources having vast reserves of coal, oil and natural gas – these are being used to fuel the industrial development of the country.Location – China’s position in the world is also beneficial for its development as it has developing markets all around it, is also on major trade routes.HumanWorkforce – There is a good supply of workers with people moving from rural areas to urban areas in search of work. Unemployment is currently 25%. Workers are among the most poorly paid in the world earning about 40p per hour – if they demand more work, there are plenty of people to take their jobs.Education – Literacy levels have risen dramatically over the last 20 years. China has both large numbers of unskilled workers willing to take on less appealing jobs and a growing number of highly skilled workers.SECONDARY SECTOR GROWTH IN CHINAEFFECTSEconomicThere has been an unprecedented level of growth in the Chinese economy over the past 20 years.SocialThere has been very little spending on social infrastructure. Government spending on health is lower now than in the 1980s although there has been increased input into education. students are lectured at with one teacher to up to 80 students in one room.There are few laws to protect workers - particularly the millions of migrant labourers.EnvironmentalThe most polluted city in the world is Linfen in China’s inland Shanxi province. The hills around Linfen are dotted with coal mines (legal and illegal) and the air is filled with the smoke of burning coal. There is also arsenic in the local water supply.there are 760,000 recorded deaths a year from air and water pollution.NEED FOR MORE HOUSING: CAUSESPopulation is growing!People marrying later in life and more divorces.Ageing population .Increased wealth (more owner-occupancy).Changing attitudes/policies of governments.NEED FOR MORE HOUSING: EFFECTSUse of brownfield sites :Infrastructure already in place, planning permission easier to obtain, avoids urban sprawl / Areas have to be cleared or decontaminated (construction costs), land prices higher.Urban sprawl and the use of greenfield Sites (e.g. Bracknell): Land is cheaper, plenty of space and lower construction costs / leads to urban sprawl, damages environment and can be difficult to get planning permission.Development of gated suburbs: New developments with gates to protect residents from perceived threats e.g. burglars.WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF DEINDUSTRIALISATION?UK manufacturing is moving to LICs causing buildings to become abandoned and derelict (‘brownfield sites’).RENEWAL = Derelict buildings converted into a new use e.g. housing.REDEVELOPMENT = Buildings are knocked down and new ones built.Norwich – 17 hectares of land has been redeveloped into an entertainment complex with cinema, shopping centre and more than 200 houses/apartments. New foot and cycle bridges have been built across the river to give better access to the area.Liverpool – From mid-1970s docks (manufacturing industries) in decline = mass unemployment (17% in early 1980s).FACTORS INFLUENCING LOCATION OF DIFFERENT INDUSTRIESPrimary Industry – China clay extraction in Cornwall- Kaolin is only found in the south-west of England. The pottery manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood based in Stoke-on-Trent formed the Cornish Clay company and this meant that there was a market for kaolin. By 1860, 65,000 tonnes was being mined each year and much of it for the Wedgwood factory.Secondary Industry – Why did Toyota locate at Burnaston near Derby? The area has a tradition in car manufacturing and this means that there are many suppliers or of component parts and engineering components. Excellent transport routes that allow easy transportation of parts and the finished product throughout the UK. Derbyshire County Council offered to buy a £20 million stake in the company and also pledged to improve the transport infrastructure by upgrading the A50 to dual carriageway.Tertiary Industry – Why did the David Lloyd Health Club locate on Hatfield Business Park? Modern building design to attract health club clients and an attractive landscape area to attract workers. Excellent transport system including wide roads, bus route, cycle and pedestrian lanes. Very close to junctions 3 and 4 of the A1(M) giving easy access to large numbers of potential users.DEINDUSTRIALISATION IN RURAL AREASPROBLEMSBENEFITSREADING, BERKSHIRESand and Gravel extraction- Many dangerous water filled quarries created when industry stopped.- Loss of jobs.- Reduced income for local government.- 10 acre lake created with water sport facilities next to Copthorne Hall.Green Park Science park now employs 7,000 people.Madejski football stadium built on waste tip (the site cost £1).EDEN PROJECT, CORNWALLChina Clay Pits- Old China clay pit (35 football pitches) = jobs lost.- Development of tourist attraction (landscaped walks, pant diversity – Equatorial and Mediterranean biomes).- Project is sustainable – energy produced through sustainable methods and teaches people about sustainability.RAPID URBAN GROWTH IN LICS: EFFECTS – CAIROBENEFITSPROBLEMSLarge pool of workers in Cairo (willing to do low-paid jobs) e.g. working at Zaballeen to collect and recycle waste.Economy grows faster due to people spending more = expansion of manufacturing and retail sectors.Noise pollution: Millions of vehicles, loud speakers, nightclubs (e.g. Nile cruises). WHO says levels are above acceptable levels.Air pollution: Predicted that ½ million residents will develop serious health problems resulting in premature death. In one industrial quarter, 37% of residents suffer from lung cancer.Land pollution: 10,000 tonnes of solid waste produced per day (only 60% collected, the rest rots in streets).Water pollution: 80% industrial waste discharged untreated into the Nile. Fishing and tourist industries damaged.Housing problems: Shortage of housing = 60% of population live in shanty settlements (e.g. ‘City of the Dead’ – one of five cemeteries used). Another effect of the housing shortage is that young professional cannot marry because strong social rules say that couples can not wed until the man can provide a home.RAPID URBAN GROWTH IN LICS: CAUSESPopulation increase: Young migrants of child-bearing age, lack of contraception, better medical facilities (lower infant morality and higher life expectancy).Rural-urban migration: Lack of jobs in rural areas, better quality of life.
2UNIT 3: HUMAN ENVIRONMENT POPULATION CHANGEUNIT 3: HUMAN ENVIRONMENTA TOURIST’S WORLDFACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION DISTRIBUTIONGENERALUKCHINANatural resources / Job opportunities / Stable governments / Climate / Relief.Densely populated in the SE and NW as well as band from Glasgow to Edinburgh in Scotland.Industry – Old industrial areas retain infrastructure (e.g. Manchester). Oil reserves at Aberdeen.Ports – Newcastle and Middlesbrough = jobs.Relief – Low-lying fertile areas such as East Anglia are too important for growing crops to have housing.Climate – northern Scotland = v cold.Capital city – London = magnet for new industries = jobs.Densely populated in the east and along rivers / the coasts.Relief – low, flat land in the east = better soil to grow crops.Climate – High rainfall in the east = good for crops.Employment – Ports in the east provide jobs.DIFFERENT TYPERS OF TOURISMPACKAGEFlights, transportation and accommodation are included in the price and sold as a package. Convenient, cheaper, one price covers all. E.g. Spain.ADVENTUREPeople go to have an exciting, adventurous holiday – not to relax but to be physical and explore. More popular with younger people. E.g. Cross-country skiing, Norway.SELF-CATERINGWhere you pay for a flight and then sorting out your own accommodation. More common in rural areas. E.g. Staying with local tribes people in Namibia.BACKPACKINGTraditionally low cost that involved camping or staying in youth hostels, but increasingly involving tourists stating in budget hotels. These holidays involve low-cost, independent, international travel.ECOTOURISMA type of sustainable tourism which aims to take into account environmental, cultural and social considerations.WHY HAS INTERNATIONAL TOURISM INCREASED?Economic – Populations of most wealthy countries are wealthier with more disposable income.Social – More leisure time due to holiday entitlement, shorter working week, early retirement / ageing pop.Transport – Rise in budget airlines making overseas travel possible.Communication – Computer systems make it easy to book holidays online.Political – Countries such as China are increasingly open to tourists.WHY DO BIRTH AND DEATH RATES CHANGE OVER TIME?Medical – In HICs new treatments are constantly being invented to combat diseases so people are living longer. Economic – It is now very costly to bring up a child in a country like the UK so couples in HICs are increasingly not having children / as many children as they do not want to change their lifestyle.Social – Educating women provides them with information on ways to control fertility. Also, many are spending more time in education and this means many women are more focused on careers and less satisfied with staying at home.Political – Some countries such as China and India have attempted to decrease birth rates through the introduction of family planning programmes. Other countries that are worried about an ageing population such as France and Singapore are giving incentives to increase the birth rate.DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODELStage 1: No countries remain at this stage – it is now confined to some of the poorest societies in the world like Amazon tribes. Birth and death rates can go up from one year to the next for many reasons such as: little access to birth control.Stage 2: Stage of rapid growth as birth rates remain high and death rates fall rapidly. Many LICs are at this stage. Death rates fall because: medical care improves so people live longer and infant mortality rates decrease.Stage 3: Birth rates fall rapidly while death rates continue to fall. Many NICs are at this stage. Due to increased access to contraception; lower infant mortality rates meaning less need for a big family.Stage 4: Both birth rates and death rates remain low, fluctuating with ‘baby booms’ and epidemics of illnesses and disease. This stage is characteristic of many HICs and results in a steady population.Stage 5: In this stage the death rate is higher than the birth rate, there is a natural decrease so the population falls. Some countries in Europe such as Germany and Estonia .BUTLER MODEL OF RESORT DEVELOPMENTExploration Small number of tourists – area unspoilt – very little impact – tourists welcomed for income.Involvement Visitor numbers increase – services provided such as hotels, transport and events.Development Numbers continue to increase – main attractions natural/cultural – some built attractions – start to promote what is now a tourist resort.Consolidation Numbers increase, but not as quickly – economy (jobs) relies on tourism – many tourist facilities – some resentment of impact from locals.Stagnation Standards of facilities and services decline as they are old and ran down – numbers drop as destination is seen as spoilt – increased resentment.Decline / Rejuvenation Dramatic decline in numbers – many lose jobs – image suffers OR rebranding of resort – significant investment in new facilities.BUTLER MODEL OF RESORT DEVELOPMENTBLACKPOOLExploration – 18th Century - Fashionable for rich people to have holidays at the seaside – bathing in sea to cure diseases.Involvement – Transport developments made Blackpool more accessible and particularly the first railway branch line being opened from Poulton to Blackpool in 1846.Development – 1870s to WWI - Workers granted annual holidays and thousands went to Blackpool to take advantage of the amenities created such as piers, amusement arcades and Blackpool Tower.Consolidation – Laws improving pay meant people had more money and they came to spend it in Blackpool. Population reached 150,000 and it was one of Europe's leading coastal resortsStagnation – WWII to 1980s -Package holidays and cheaper air travel meant people could go overseas for sun.Decline then Rejuvenation – 1987 to Today -Currently between decline and rejuvenation. Visitor numbers / spend have declined, but new development has taken place .HOW HAS CHINA DECREASED BIRTH RATES?INCENTIVESone- child glory certificate’ :Cash bonuses /Longer maternity leave/ Free education/ Free medical care /Better child care.DISINCENTIVESHeavy fines / ‘Granny police’ – monitored use of contraception. / Women were pressurised into abortions./ Forced sterilisation.In rural areas a second child is allowed if the first child is a girl, in Urban areas the one child policy is still strictly enforced.HOW HAS SINGAPORE INCREASED BIRTH RATES?INCENTIVESCash Gift ($3,000) for 1st and 2nd child/ cash gift ($6,000) for 3rd and 4th child/ 3 months maternity leave for mothers/ 5 days of paid child care leave a year/ with more children parents are entitled to upgrade to a bigger flat.DISINCENTIVESCouples with 1 child or no children can only buy a 3 room flat/ Women with fewer than 3 children are not allowed to be sterilised without undergoing a counselling course.IMPACTS OF TOURISM IN HIC – MALHAMBenefitsSocial Effects – More demand for local services with the bus service to Skipton more frequent in the summer months due to the fact that tourists use it.Economic Effects - Tourism provides new job opportunities in an area suffering from a loss of jobs in farming – e.g. farmers opening campsites on their land.Environmental Effects – Malham is in the Yorkshire Dales National Park - development is restricted and has to be in keeping with the local environment – building in stone.ProblemsSocial Effects – Appearance of village harmed through lots of billboards to appeal to tourists – linked to this, some pubs have became themed and less authentic!Economic Effects – In 1991, 55% of houses in Malham were used for holidays. Demand for second homes has led to dramatic rises in house prices.Environmental Effects – Erosion of footpaths due to between 75,000 and 100,000 visitors each year.IMPACTS OF TOURISM IN LIC – MACHU PICCHUBenefitsTourists spend money and a handicraft market for tourists has appeared at the local market in Pisac on a Sunday morning.The number of tourists limited to 500 people per day.No plastic bottles are allowed on the trail since 2000 – only canteens.Porters on the Inca Trail are paid $10 a day and some companies also request they are tipped.ProblemsHotels such as the Sanctuary lodge at the entrance of Machu Picchu are owned by overseas companies.The best paid jobs in foreign owned hotels are often given to foreigners.Tourists pick orchids which grow among the ruins and along the side of the trail.500 tourists a day walk the Inca Trail and in 1998, 53,500 tourists walked the trail that year.YOUTHFUL POPULATIONSBenefits - Plenty of people in the workforce bringing money into the economy. Less strain on NHS (in the UK) and healthcare provision. Less dependence on nursing homes – could lead to better quality care.Problems - Increase in crime rates (more associated with younger population). Young children dependant on parents – parents unable to work. More competition for jobs (higher unemployment) due to more people of working age in population.AGEING POPULATIONSBenefits - Boom in leisure facilities for older people (e.g. Leisure centres )Wisdom can be passed on to younger generations. Less competition for jobs. Some jobs created through ‘greying economy’ (e.g. Saga holidays). Less Crime.Problems - Strain on NHS (in UK) and healthcare budgets/staffing/facilities. Children‘s wards in hospitals, and schools may close. Fewer people of working age, meaning not enough people to fill jobs. Strain for economy.CONSEQUENCES OF AN AGEING POPUALTION - JAPANProblems - Workforce – Businesses already face difficulties in finding new recruits and the labour force in the bracket has shrunk rapidly. In 1990, there were six people of working age for each pensioner, by 2025 it is projected it will be only two people of working age. Pensions –In 2005 retirement age rose to 65, higher pension contributions from the employees, employers and the government. Healthcare - 93% of people over 60 live at home, this is changing with more people living in nursing homes. In 2008, a new health insurance scheme was launched for over 75s that saw incentives for hospitals to limit patient stays to less than 100 days , nicknamed the ‘hurry up and die’ scheme!Benefits - Japan’s pensioners are spending rapidly (a ‘grey boom’). They are less anxious about the future and are spending on a range of luxury goods. Social attitudes have changed becoming less concerned about leaving money for their children and all of this spending boosts the economy. There has been a technological explosion – there are an array of gadgets for people worried about elderly relatives that enable people to check up and ensure they are well.ECOTOURISM – ESELENKEI CONSERVATION AREAEcotourism is a type of sustainable tourism which aims to take into account environmental, cultural and social considerations.Benefits of ecotourismPorini Ecotourism is a Kenyan company – money stays in Kenya.10% Maasai tribal lands designated private reserve = Maasai receive rent for land from tour operator + entry fee from each tourist = 2 new school buildings, 2 new water holes for cattle.Accommodation in camps – no damage to the view, less drain on water resources, etc.No poaching / snaring has taken place since the opening.