2Factors causing Urbanisation Economic – Demand for less workers in towns – Pull Factors- Less work in rural areas – Pull FactorsSocial – Better Services : housing choice, more exciting lifestyles in towns.Political – More investment in towns (L.E.D.C’s)
3Urbanisation in M.E.D.C’s Brought about by industrialisation where society changed from one dependent on manufacturing industries and associated services.N.I.C’s were located close to their raw materials especially coal, which was the main energy source.Rapid Industrial growth was based on the development of markers, both at home and abroad. This led to multiplier effect.Industrial growth attracted more people to the towns in a time when less labour was needed on the land.As towns threw around the NIC’s they acted as a magnet, attracting associated industries and supporting services.The largest cities grew faster as workers were released from farming and job opportunities.Towns drew in more people as they provide opportunities to earn more money and standards of living.Since the 1960’s rates of urbanisation has slowed down due to a fall in birth rate.
4Urbanisation in L.E.D.C’s Mechanisation – Less workers needed on farms so means more people going to the cities.Industrial competition with large companies locating in the cities. The workers are encouraged to move to the city for work.Rapid Population Growth – A high birth rate at a time of falling birth rate.Improved communications has made people aware of urban living standards and the possibility of moving to share them.In M.E.D.C’s the growth of new industries was able to absorb unskilled from workers. In L.E.D.C’s there are fewer jobs in manufacturing.The economies of L.E.D.C’s are only large enough to support the growth of the large city, usually the capital.
5The Consequences The growth of mega cities The Consequences can be divided into impacts on the city and impacts on rural areas.
8Factors to considerNew Immigrants often do not have the right skills or qualifications.This means that many remain unemployed or work in the informal sector.The informal sector provides no training so the worker will not escape the poverty circle.Local authorities are poor and can not keep up with the demand for housing.Shanty Housing develops on marginal landNew Immigrants often do not have the right skills or qualifications.
9Location of Shanty Towns Steep SlopesNear to main roadsAlongside IndustryAlongside railwaysOn the edge of the cityPoor Land
10Urban Dwellers cleared from other sites. Recent Migrants from rural areas.Squatter SettlementIllegal site invasionNo Urban ServicesWork gained in the informal sector.Association puts case of provision of essential services such as water and electricity.Local community association formed amongst squatters.Increased income to buy bricks and roofing materials.Persuade local authorities to let them stay.Pressure is maintained on the local authorities and service providers.Shanty Town – houses rebuilt with proper materials, but few services exist e.g. water is obtained.Installation of water and electricity. Young Township created.Surface roads to towns built. Now a urban residential area.