Presentation on theme: "Urbanisation. Factors causing Urbanisation Economic – Demand for less workers in towns – Pull Factors - Less work in rural areas – Pull Factors Social."— Presentation transcript:
Factors causing Urbanisation Economic – Demand for less workers in towns – Pull Factors - Less work in rural areas – Pull Factors Social – Better Services : housing choice, more exciting lifestyles in towns. Political – More investment in towns (L.E.D.Cs)
Urbanisation in M.E.D.Cs Brought about by industrialisation where society changed from one dependent on manufacturing industries and associated services. N.I.Cs were located close to their raw materials especially coal, which was the main energy source. Rapid Industrial growth was based on the development of markers, both at home and abroad. This led to multiplier effect. Industrial growth attracted more people to the towns in a time when less labour was needed on the land. As towns threw around the NICs they acted as a magnet, attracting associated industries and supporting services. Towns drew in more people as they provide opportunities to earn more money and standards of living. The largest cities grew faster as workers were released from farming and job opportunities. Since the 1960s rates of urbanisation has slowed down due to a fall in birth rate.
Urbanisation in L.E.D.Cs Mechanisation – Less workers needed on farms so means more people going to the cities. Rapid Population Growth – A high birth rate at a time of falling birth rate. Industrial competition with large companies locating in the cities. The workers are encouraged to move to the city for work. Improved communications has made people aware of urban living standards and the possibility of moving to share them. In M.E.D.Cs the growth of new industries was able to absorb unskilled from workers. In L.E.D.Cs there are fewer jobs in manufacturing. The economies of L.E.D.Cs are only large enough to support the growth of the large city, usually the capital.
The Consequences The growth of mega cities The Consequences can be divided into impacts on the city and impacts on rural areas.
Consequences on the city
Consequences on Rural Areas
Factors to consider New Immigrants often do not have the right skills or qualifications. This means that many remain unemployed or work in the informal sector. The informal sector provides no training so the worker will not escape the poverty circle. Local authorities are poor and can not keep up with the demand for housing. Shanty Housing develops on marginal land New Immigrants often do not have the right skills or qualifications.
Location of Shanty Towns Alongside railways Alongside Industry Near to main roads Steep Slopes On the edge of the city Poor Land
Recent Migrants from rural areas. Urban Dwellers cleared from other sites. Squatter Settlement Illegal site invasion No Urban Services Work gained in the informal sector. Increased income to buy bricks and roofing materials. Local community association formed amongst squatters. Persuade local authorities to let them stay. Shanty Town – houses rebuilt with proper materials, but few services exist e.g. water is obtained. Installation of water and electricity. Young Township created. Surface roads to towns built. Now a urban residential area. Association puts case of provision of essential services such as water and electricity. Pressure is maintained on the local authorities and service providers.