Presentation on theme: "The Colony of Georgia Standard SS8H2: The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history. a) Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe,"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Colony of GeorgiaStandard SS8H2: The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history.a) Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement, Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannahb) Evaluate the Trustee Period of GA’s colonial history emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida.
3 A Colony ProposedSir Robert Montgomery, Aaron Hill, and Amos Kettleby proposed the creation of “Margravate of Azilla” An area west of the Savannah RiverDr. Thomas Bray proposes a colony in the New World to help debtorsEngland’s debtors prisons’ conditions were horribleEngland was overcrowded and had high unemploymentAfter Bray’s death Oglethorpe and John Percival asked the King for permission to create a colony
4 Georgia is Created June 20, 1732 Georgia received its official charter Charter of 1732 – a legal document that allowed Georgia to be createdGeorgia would be a charter colony for 20 YearsSavannah River was its Northern border & Altamaha its SouthernGeorgia stretched across all of North America
5 James Oglethorpe At 25 was elected to Parliament Became a leader in Prison ReformA close friend had died in debtors prison, Robert CastellAsked King George II for a land grantKnown as the Father of Georgia
7 Georgia’s PurposesCharity – help relieve poverty and unemployment in BritainEconomics – Increase Britain’s trade and wealth, more land and power, mercantilismDefense – to act as a buffer for South Carolina against Indians, France, and Spain.
8 Georgia’s PurposesReligion was also a reason, though not stated in the charter – Religious FreedomNew home for Protestants being persecuted in EuropeGeorgians were free to worship as they pleasedCatholics were not allowed in the colony of Georgia.Why?
9 Georgia a Trustee Colony The 21 Trustees ran the colonyTrustees were prohibited to…* receive a salary* hold public office* own land* pass laws but passed regulations insteadTrustees would choose who would go* 35 families were selected* Not one was a debtor* Most were skilled laborers
10 November 1732 Georgians Set Sail Sailed into Charles Town harbor on ship AnnOglethorpe found an area to settle called Yamacraw BluffMet John & Mary Musgrove Carolina traders, who became interpreters for OglethorpeOglethorpe had to ask Chief Tomochichi, of the Yamacraws, permission to settle the landFebruary 12, 1733 colonists settled the land
11 Georgia’s First Settlement Named it Savannah after the riverSavannah had a special design: created by Robert Castell* Divided into squares* Square was a neighborhood center* Around each square were houses
13 Difficulties & Growing Pains Settlement was followed by 10 months of disease & deathNew colonists arrived* 40 Jews who were displaced fromSpain & Portugal*Dr. Samuel Nunis a Jewish doctor was among these colonists, and helped the first medical crisis pass
14 New Colonists and New Settlements Salzburgers A group of German Protestants forced to leave Germany asked to settle in GeorgiaJohn Martin Bolzius was the leader of the Salzburgers.They settled two new towns in Georgia, Ebenezer and New EbenezerThey were against slavery in Georgia
17 Difficulties & Growing Pains Colonists complained about trustee regulations* Restrictions on land ownership &inheritance – only males could ownland ( 50 acres)* Ban on slavery* Prohibitions on rum – no hard liquorMalcontents- unhappy British colonists in Georgia who wanted the ban on slavery liftedHighland Scots – a group brought of fighters brought to defend GA and who were against slavery
18 Georgia Forts Fort: A military base used to protect against enemies Parliament provided money to build fortsWhy?Georgia grew increasingly worried about the Spanish threat from La FloridaBuilt Fort Frederica for protection against Florida – grew to be the largest British military base in America
19 Indian RelationsOglethorpe wanted to keep positive relationships with the IndiansWanted to keep them as alliesOglethorpe regulated trade with Indians so the Indians would not be taken advantage of
20 War With Spain England’s conflict with Spain escalates King allows Oglethorpe to raise a regiment of 600 soldiers for Georgia1739 Britain declared war on SpainThe English captured Florida’s Fort Diego
21 War With SpainTried to capture Fort Mose – the home of the Black Militia300 Spanish soldiers, including members of Black Militia attacked Fort Mose at dawn.Oglethorpe & his troops were defeated at Fort Mose and discouragedThey retreated back to St. Simons Island
22 Battle of Bloody MarshIn June 1742, Georgia defenders pulled back to Fort Frederica.On July , a Spanish force approached Fort FredericaOglethorpe hid troops behind bushes and trees
23 Battle of Bloody MarshOglethorpe’s troops fired and a quick but fierce battle followedSeveral days later the Spanish attacked again but were pushed backGeorgia had been saved from SpainOglethorpe was promoted to the rank of GeneralChief Tomochichi’s nephew Toonahowi fights along side Oglethorpe
24 OglethorpeOglethorpe returns to EnglandHe never returns to GeorgiaMarried Elizabeth Wright at age 48Served on Parliament for the next 10 years
25 Colony DeclinesWith Oglethorpe gone Trustees abandoned principles that made Georgia uniqueMany colonists went back to EnglandTrustees lightened restrictions on land ownership and inheritanceIn 1750 they lifted the ban on slavery
26 Georgia a Royal Colony A royal colony is governed by the King In 1752 Georgia became a Royal ColonyIn 1754, Captain John Reynolds arrived to become Georgia’s first GovernorGeorgia had its own legislature* Appointed upper house would advisethe governor* Elected lower house was Georgiansfirst chance at self-government. They had to own 500 acres to be elected.
27 Georgia a Royal ColonyReynolds was not popular or effective and was replaced after 2 yearsHis replacement was Henry Ellis* increasing population* improving economyGeorgia’s 3rd governor, James Wright, was its best* improved GA’s defenses greatly* He would be governor during the Revolutionary War