Presentation on theme: "The Colony of Georgia ► Standard SS8H2: The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history. a) Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe,"— Presentation transcript:
The Colony of Georgia ► Standard SS8H2: The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history. a) Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement, Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah b) Evaluate the Trustee Period of GA’s colonial history emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida.
A Colony Proposed ► Sir Robert Montgomery, Aaron Hill, and Amos Kettleby proposed the creation of “Margravate of Azilla” An area west of the Savannah River ► Dr. Thomas Bray proposes a colony in the New World to help debtors ► England’s debtors prisons’ conditions were horrible ► England was overcrowded and had high unemployment ► After Bray’s death Oglethorpe and John Percival asked the King for permission to create a colony
Georgia is Created ► June 20, 1732 Georgia received its official charter ► Charter of 1732 – a legal document that allowed Georgia to be created ► Georgia would be a charter colony for 20 Years ► Savannah River was its Northern border & Altamaha its Southern ► Georgia stretched across all of North America
James Oglethorpe ► At 25 was elected to Parliament ► Became a leader in Prison Reform ► A close friend had died in debtors prison, Robert Castell ► Asked King George II for a land grant ► Known as the Father of Georgia
Georgia’s Purposes ► Charity – help relieve poverty and unemployment in Britain ► Economics – Increase Britain’s trade and wealth, more land and power, mercantilism ► Defense – to act as a buffer for South Carolina against Indians, France, and Spain.
Georgia’s Purposes ► Religion was also a reason, though not stated in the charter – Religious Freedom ► New home for Protestants being persecuted in Europe ► Georgians were free to worship as they pleased ► Catholics were not allowed in the colony of Georgia. Why?
Georgia a Trustee Colony ► The 21 Trustees ran the colony ► Trustees were prohibited to… * receive a salary * hold public office * own land * pass laws but passed regulations instead Trustees would choose who would go * 35 families were selected * Not one was a debtor * Most were skilled laborers
November 1732 Georgians Set Sail ► Sailed into Charles Town harbor on ship Ann ► Oglethorpe found an area to settle called Yamacraw Bluff ► Met John & Mary Musgrove Carolina traders, who became interpreters for Oglethorpe ► Oglethorpe had to ask Chief Tomochichi, of the Yamacraws, permission to settle the land ► February 12, 1733 colonists settled the land
Georgia’s First Settlement ► Named it Savannah after the river ► Savannah had a special design: created by Robert Castell * Divided into squares * Divided into squares * Square was a neighborhood center * Around each square were 40 houses * Around each square were 40 houses
Difficulties & Growing Pains ► Settlement was followed by 10 months of disease & death ► New colonists arrived * 40 Jews who were displaced from Spain & Portugal Spain & Portugal *Dr. Samuel Nunis a Jewish doctor was among these colonists, and helped the first medical crisis pass
New Colonists and New Settlements ► Salzburgers A group of German Protestants forced to leave Germany asked to settle in Georgia ► John Martin Bolzius was the leader of the Salzburgers. ► They settled two new towns in Georgia, Ebenezer and New Ebenezer ► They were against slavery in Georgia
John Martin Bolzius
Ebenezer and New Ebenezer
Difficulties & Growing Pains ► Colonists complained about trustee regulations * Restrictions on land ownership & inheritance – only males could own inheritance – only males could own land ( 50 acres) land ( 50 acres) * Ban on slavery * Prohibitions on rum – no hard liquor ► Malcontents- unhappy British colonists in Georgia who wanted the ban on slavery lifted ► Highland Scots – a group brought of fighters brought to defend GA and who were against slavery
Georgia Forts ► Fort: A military base used to protect against enemies ► Parliament provided money to build forts ► Why? ► Georgia grew increasingly worried about the Spanish threat from La Florida ► Built Fort Frederica for protection against Florida – grew to be the largest British military base in America
Indian Relations ► Oglethorpe wanted to keep positive relationships with the Indians ► Wanted to keep them as allies ► Oglethorpe regulated trade with Indians so the Indians would not be taken advantage of
War With Spain ► England’s conflict with Spain escalates ► King allows Oglethorpe to raise a regiment of 600 soldiers for Georgia ► 1739 Britain declared war on Spain ► The English captured Florida’s Fort Diego
War With Spain ► Tried to capture Fort Mose – the home of the Black Militia ► 300 Spanish soldiers, including members of Black Militia attacked Fort Mose at dawn. ► Oglethorpe & his troops were defeated at Fort Mose and discouraged ► They retreated back to St. Simons Island
Battle of Bloody Marsh ► In June 1742, Georgia defenders pulled back to Fort Frederica. ► On July , a Spanish force approached Fort Frederica ► Oglethorpe hid troops behind bushes and trees
Battle of Bloody Marsh ► Oglethorpe’s troops fired and a quick but fierce battle followed ► Several days later the Spanish attacked again but were pushed back ► Georgia had been saved from Spain ► Oglethorpe was promoted to the rank of General ► Chief Tomochichi’s nephew Toonahowi fights along side Oglethorpe
Oglethorpe ► Oglethorpe returns to England ► He never returns to Georgia ► Married Elizabeth Wright at age 48 ► Served on Parliament for the next 10 years
Colony Declines ► With Oglethorpe gone Trustees abandoned principles that made Georgia unique ► Many colonists went back to England ► Trustees lightened restrictions on land ownership and inheritance ► In 1750 they lifted the ban on slavery
Georgia a Royal Colony ► A royal colony is governed by the King ► In 1752 Georgia became a Royal Colony ► In 1754, Captain John Reynolds arrived to become Georgia’s first Governor ► Georgia had its own legislature * Appointed upper house would advise the governor the governor * Elected lower house was Georgians first chance at self-government. They had to own 500 acres to be elected. first chance at self-government. They had to own 500 acres to be elected.
Georgia a Royal Colony ► Reynolds was not popular or effective and was replaced after 2 years ► His replacement was Henry Ellis * increasing population * improving economy Georgia’s 3 rd governor, James Wright, was its best * improved GA’s defenses greatly * He would be governor during the Revolutionary War