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The Founding of Georgia

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1 The Founding of Georgia
The Creation of a New Colony SS8H2: The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history

2 Hard Times In England During the 1600s, England was experiencing two main problems: 1.) Not enough jobs to support the population. 2.) Prison overcrowding due to the large number of debtors.

3 James Oglethorpe Proposes a Solution
At age 25, James Oglethorpe was elected to Parliament, which is the national law-making body (legislature) in England. Oglethorpe knew that a solution had to be created to solve England’s problems. He convinced John Percival, an influential Parliament member, (Jail Committee) to ask King George II for a grant of land in North America. Why????

4 Georgia Is Created King George II granted Oglethorpe a grant of land south of Carolina. In honor of King George II, Oglethorpe and Percival named the new grant of land, Georgia, after the king.

5 Georgia’s Charter June 20, 1732, Georgia received its charter, explaining the purpose for colonization: Defense – to provide South Carolina with a buffer against Indian attacks & Spanish threat from Florida Economics – increase Britain’s trade & wealth. Charity – relieve poverty & unemployment in Britain Freedom of Religion was an additional concern

6 A Unique Colony Georgia was the only colony to be governed by trustees
A trustee is: someone placed in an official position of trust to act on behalf of someone else. Oglethorpe and 20 other British Gentlemen acted as the trustees.

7 Destination Reached November of 1732, Oglethorpe & 114 settlers sail on the Anne in hopes of reaching America; they make it 57 days later. Oglethorpe received permission from Tomochichi, a Yamacraw chief, to settle in GA at Yamacraw Bluff. The Yamacraw had a lot to gain: goods from the English, & crops (Yamacraw did not grow crops). February 12, 1733 – Georgia was officially founded.

8 Mary Musgrove Oglethorpe communicated with the Yamacraw with the help of Mary Musgrove She was a part-Creek, part-White woman who along with her husband owned a trading post.

9 Georgia’s First Settlement
Savannah was built using a plan in London called Squares – open spaces, which acted as a neighborhood center Lots adjacent to the squares were set aside for public buildings. There were 40 house lots set aside each square.

10 New Rules Lead To Unrest
1.) Restrictions on land ownership used to prevent an upper class (50 acres of land per person) 2.) A ban on Slavery 3.) Prohibitions on rum & hard liquors

11 Building Forts & Enhancing Indian Relations
Georgia’s main importance was to act as a buffer colony – protect South Carolina. The first fort was constructed at Darien (North of the Altamaha River).

12 Building Forts & Enhancing Indian Relations
In December of 1735, Oglethorpe & 257 Georgia colonists constructed a second fort at St. Simons Island; this later became the town & fort of Frederica. Think back to the last unit. What problems will arise due to English forts being built in GA?????

13 Fort at Darien

14 Indian Relations Continued
Oglethorpe had instructions to keep a good relationship with the Indians. Why? The Indians would act as allies if war broke out with Spain. Trading regulations were established to trade with the Indians (license, fees, rules). Trading took place in the backcountry.

15 The Beginning of War With Spain
In November of 1736, Oglethorpe returned to England to warn of a Spanish invasion. In October of 1737, King George II promoted Oglethorpe to colonel of the British Army. Oglethorpe had to raise a force of 600 soldiers, and was in command of forces in Georgia & South Carolina.

16 War With Spain Cont. 1739 England declared war on Spain; in 1740, England led an invasion into Florida. 1740 – England captures Ft. Diego; however looses a battle at Fort Mose. The Black Militia was influential in Spain’s victory. 1742 – A fleet of several thousand Spanish soldiers appear on the horizon near Ft. Frederica; England was outnumbered.

17 Battle of Bloody Marsh July 7, 1742, Spain was advancing from the South closing in on Ft. Frederica. After Oglethorpe was warned, he positioned troops behind bushes and trees in the marsh. When Spain approached the marsh, they were surprised by the attack. Spain lost the battle quickly.

18 Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony
1752 – Georgia is under the direct control of the British Government. 1754 – John Reynolds becomes the first royal governor of Georgia. New Government – Appointed upper house; elected lower house (Commons House of Assembly) Only white males who owned 500 acres could be elected to the House of Assembly.

19 Continued After two years, Henry Ellis replaced John Reynolds as Governor. 1758 – Anglican Church became the official church of GA. The colony was broken down into Parishes – eight religious districts. Residents of each parish elected wardens and paid taxes to the church. After three years, Ellis resigned as Gov. and Sir James Wright took over. He was the most successful of the three.

20 The French & Indian War France (and Indians) VS England (and Colonists) Fighting began in North America Spain joined and helped France late in the war They asked Britain for peace France lost Canada and land east of Mississippi River Spain lost Florida Mississippi River became Georgia’s western border

21 The Colony Prospers After Georgia acquired additional land, it decided to attract more settlers Under the headright system, each family was given 100 acres plus 50 acres per family member, indentured servant, or slave that came to Ga. Infer what happens next?

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