Presentation on theme: "Narayan ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES CHARTER FOR THE 21ST. CENTURY Develop and operate facilities and undertake activities with energy efficiency, sustainable."— Presentation transcript:
Narayan ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES CHARTER FOR THE 21ST. CENTURY Develop and operate facilities and undertake activities with energy efficiency, sustainable use of renewable resources and waste generation in mind. Conduct or support research on the impact and ways to minimize the impacts of raw materials, products or processes, emissions and wastes. Modify the manufacture, marketing, or use of products and services so as to prevent serious or irreversible environmental damage. Develop and provide products and services that do not harm the environment. Contribute to the transfer of environmentally sound technology and management methods. C& E News, April 8, 1991, pg. 4 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY’S RESPONSIBLE CARE PROGRAM
Narayan SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT -- Industrial Ecology –Cradle to Grave material design -- feedstock, manufacture, use, ultimate disposability –ISO 14000 Series Standards –“Life Cycle Concepts” applied to design of materials SUSTAINABILITY/ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES –Use of annually renewable resources –non-toxic, non-polluting (emissions & waste) reactants and products water-based -- no voc’s worker saftey Safe (TOSCA approved), easy to handle –Biodegradability and recyclability ENVIRONMENTAL & REGULATORY DRIVERS -- “DESIGN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT” --
Narayan SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Not just a prescribed set of practices Challenges industry to think about long-term implications of its practices from a holistic ecological perspective provide for the economic and societal needs without comprising the health of the ecosystem/biosphere LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT CONCEPTS CRADLE TO GRAVE DESIGN OF MATERIALS
Narayan NEW INDUSTRY PARADIGM CO 2 Biomass/Bio-organics Fossil Resources (petroleum, Natural gas) Polymers, Chemicals & Fuels Chemical Industry Bio-chemical Industry > 10 6 years 1 - 10 yrs Renewable Carbon Sources CO 2, & Biomass New Biochemical Industry Small, entrepreneurial business Green polymers & Chemicals
Narayan DRIVERS FOR MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY SHIFTS Time Value in Use Natural Ingredients Labor Intensive Attractive Aesthetics Cheap petroleum Ease of manufacture Low labor input Excellent functionality Recyclable Biodegradable Non-polluting Energy efficient Tailored Functionality Renewable resource based Silk Aramids Lycra Vinyl Polyester Nylon Rayon Wool Cotton Feathers Fur ? Traditional Materials Synthetics Environmentally Friendly Products/Processes SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY Paradigm shift
Narayan MATERIALS DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT FROM “CONCEPTION TO REINCARNATION” FEEDSTOCK PRODUCT MANUFACTURE ULTIMATE DISPOSABILITY Transform into Useful Product Design, Use, Disposal, and Reuse of Materials Incorporating “ LIFE CYCLE THINKING ” Impact on the Environment Reduced or No emissions /waste (Air, water, solid wastes) Energy efficiency Annually renewable resources Issues to Consider:
Narayan Bioscience Will Impact Future Material Systems ADVANCED MATERIALS SYSTEMS BIOSCIENCE ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE MATERIALS PROCESS SYSTEMSPRODUCT SYSTEMS
Narayan BIOBASED PRODUCT DRIVERS -- U.S. GOVERNMENT Presidential Executive Order 13101 (Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, dated September 14, 1998) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is proposing guidelines for listing commercially available biobased products for purchase by Federal agencies. Biobased product is defined as a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal, and marine) or forestry materials. USDA is listing only those products which are considered by USDA to be within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmentally Preferable Products Guidelines. U.S. EPA has issued “Guiding Principles” for products to be listed as “Environmentally Preferable”. Recycling, and the use of recycled products is on the top of the list of these principles. Composting is Biological (Organic) Recycling
Narayan BIOBASED PRODUCT DRIVERS -- U.S. GOVERNMENT (Contd.) The requirement for Federal agencies to consider biobased products which is environmentally preferable (U.S. EPA) is also in Office of Management and Budget (OMB)/Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letter 92 ‑ 4 and applies to all Federal agencies.
Narayan MATRIX FOR BIOBASED TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Narayan MATRIX FOR BIOBASED TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Narayan INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO) ISO/TC-207 ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCOPE “STANDARDIZATION IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT” Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Environmental Audit (EA) Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Environmental Labeling (EL) Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE) Close working relationship with ISO/TC 176 (ISO 9000 series Quality Assurance Standards) in the field of Environmental Systems and Audits 14000 SERIES STANDARDS
Narayan ISO/TC 207 STRUCTURE Canada -- Secretariat WG TERMINOLOGY & DEFINITIONS SC ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION -- USA SC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS -- UK SC ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING -- NETHERLANDS SC LCA -- FRANCE WG Code of Practice (USA); WG Inventory Analysis (Germany); WG Impact Analysis (Sweden); WG Improvement Analysis (France) SC ENVIRONMENTAL LABELING -- AUSTRALIA SC ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCT STANDARDS GERMANY ORGANIZATION ORIENTED PRODUCT ORIENTED
Narayan Toward a More Sustainable Campus at Michigan State University University Committee for a Sustainable Campus
Narayan University Committee for a Sustainable Campus In September 1998, the Executive Committee of Academic Council Approved an Initiative to Further the Efforts of Michigan State University Towards Becoming a More Sustainable Campus.
Narayan Developing an Infrastructure The proposal for a university wide committee aimed to create a committee with wide representation from throughout the campus and across all lines of employment and study. The proposal allowed for participation of operations staff from various units across campus, a faculty member from each college and two graduate and two undergraduate students. Through nominations and appointments a committee was formed and met initially at the end of January 1999. The committee elected a chair, discussed committee processes and worked in tandem with the seminar series steering committee to ensure the series success.
Narayan Mission Statement In keeping with MSU’s role as a land grant university, the mission of the University Committee for a Sustainable Campus is to foster a collaborative learning culture that will: Lead the Michigan State University community to a heightened awareness of its environmental impact Conserve natural resources for future generations Establish MSU as a working model for creating a sustainable community We envision a sustainable community as one that provides for the social and economic needs of all its members for many generations to come, without compromising the health of the biosphere
Narayan Goals Education - to heighten the environmental awareness of the Campus Research - to increase research on our campus environmental impact and support environmentally focused research by the campus community. Support - to build support throughout the campus to meet the mission of the university committee for a sustainable campus. Outreach - to transfer knowledge of sustainability gained from MSU experiences beyond the campus. Assessment - to coordinate an environmental assessment of the MSU campus. Policy - to recommend adoption of policies which support the practice of environmental stewardship.
Narayan ENVIRONMENTALLY (& ECONOMICALLY) SOUND PRODUCT MANUFACTURING BASED ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) “ Impact on the environment throughout the life cycle of a product from raw material acquisition to ultimate disposal ” “CRADLE TO GRAVE”
Narayan ELEMENTS OF AN LCA Goal definition & Scope (Scoping) Inventory Analysis –Systems & Systems boundaries –Data quality Impact assessment –Classification resource depletion; abiotic & biotic pollution; global warming, ozone depletion, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidant, acidification, eutrophication degradation of ecosystems and landscapes –Characterization –Valuation Improvement Assessment Validation
Narayan AVALIAÇÃO DO CICLO DE VIDA DE PRODUTOS PRODUÇÃO RECICLAGEM DISTRIBUIÇÃO UTILIZAÇÃO RE-UTILIZAÇÃO INCINERAÇÃO ATERRO MATERIAL A OUTROS MATERIAL B ENERGIA
Narayan ACV - Ciclo de vida Extracção de matérias primas Produção Utilização Reciclagem / Reutilização Processamento de resíduos Fornecimento de energia Transporte Fronteira do sistema Outros sistemas Produtos Fluxos elementares Produtos Outros sistemas
Narayan Responsabilização - Quantificação … A necessidade de uma técnica de quantificação do impacte ambiental de um produto ou Serviço. ACV - Avaliação do Ciclo de Vida dos Produtos ou Serviços
Narayan ACV - Contexto Os princípios associados à ACV encontram-se em fase de normalização, nas normas ISO 14040 e seguintes. A ISO 14040 define ACV como: Compilação dos fluxos de entradas e saídas e avaliação dos impactes ambientais associados a um produto ao longo do seu ciclo de vida. Produto/serviço - Função, Unidade funcional
Narayan COMPONENTES DE UMA ACV DEFINIÇÃO DE OBJECTIVOS ANÁLISE DE INVENTÁRIO AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTOS Â M B I T O I N O V A Ç Ã O
Narayan Cradle to Grave Concept for Material Design (Integration of Material Design with Waste Managment Infrastructure). COMPOSTING FACILITY COMPOSTING FACILITY SANITARY LANDFILL SANITARY LANDFILL RECYCLING FACILITY RECYCLING FACILITY WASTE TO ENERGY FACILITY WASTE TO ENERGY FACILITY MATERIAL REDESIGN MATERIAL REDESIGN RECYCLABLE BIODEGRADABLE RECYCLED PRODUCTS LAND APPLICATION recycling polymeric carbon back to soil ENERGY INCINERABLE TOXIC RESIDUALS (ASH) ?
Narayan COMPOSTING IN WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY THE THREE R’s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) Grass mulching and landscaping On-Site & Home Composting Source-separated organics (biodegradables) composting Mixed -waste composting Counts towards source reduction Counts towards source reduciton Counts towards recycling and diversion from landfill Counts towards recycling -- lower value application
Narayan SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE Crop yields on severely eroded soil are lower than those on protected soils because erosion reduces soil fertility and water availability Corn yields on some severely eroded soils have been reduced by 12 to 21% in Kentucky, 0 to 24% in Illinois and Indiana, 25 to 65% in the southern Piedmont (Georgia), and 21% in Michigan. During a single growing season, a hectare of corn (yield, 7000 kg/ha) transpires about 4,000,000 liters of water, and an additional 2,000,000 liters ha concurrently evaporate from the soil In the United States an estimated 4 billion tons of soil and 130 billion tons of water are lost from the 160 million ha of cropland each year. This translates into an on-site economic loss of more than $27 billion each year, of which $20 billion is for replacement of nutrients and $7 billion for lost water and soil depth.
Narayan COMPOSTING & THE ENVIRONMENT COMPOSTING IS AN ECOLOGICALLY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND APPROACH TO TRANSFERRING BIODEGRADABLE WASTE (INCLUDES THE BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS) TO USEFUL PRODUCT COMPOSTING IS BIOLOGICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON COMPOST USE REDUCES CHEMICAL INPUTS, SUPRESSES CROP DISEASES, REPLENISHES ORGANIC CARBON, INCREASES WATER & NUTRIENT RETENTION, IMPROVES SOIL PRODUCTIVITY “SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE” SCIENCE & ENGINEERING OF COMPOSTING, HOITNIK & KEENER, EDS. 1993 Narayan -- Biodegradation of polymeric materials during composting, p. 339
Narayan FIGURE 2-2. The Composting Equation. C biomass (compost) = C cellmass + C humic material 2 + HO C biomass/compost + C CO 2 C material + O 2 + Heat (stabilized, slow-release form of carbon and nitrogen)
Narayan ORGANIC/COMPOSTABLE MATERIAL (carbon source) ORGANIC/COMPOSTABLE MATERIAL (carbon source) HUMUS/ COMPOST HUMUS/ COMPOST Nutrients N,P,K,... Microorganisms Oxygen Moisture Breakdown Products Breakdown Products CELL MASS death HEAT 2 CO + H O 2 Chemical degradation Biodegradation Polymerization COMPOSTING PROCESS
RECYCLING ORGANIC WASTES TO PRODUCE QUALITY COMPOST Yard Wastes Food Paper Biodegradables Yard Wastes Food Paper Biodegradables Quality Compost Product from a Semi-Segregated Waste Stream: Reduces chemical input requirements Increases soil water and nutrient retention Suppresses plant disease Augments organic matter Quality Compost Product from a Semi-Segregated Waste Stream: Reduces chemical input requirements Increases soil water and nutrient retention Suppresses plant disease Augments organic matter COMPOSTING INFRASTRUCTURE COMPOSTING INFRASTRUCTURE
Narayan Pilot Scale Composting of paper-yard waste
Narayan Pilot Scale composting of Kraft paper in yard debris mixture
Narayan Number of facilities climbing More emphasis on quality –Source separation growing Looking for new feedstocks –Food scraps –Manure Becoming a Business –Not a waste option COMPOSTING IN THE U.S.A.
Narayan Wraps Composition of Typical Fast-food Restaurant Waste. Customer Orders in a Typical BK Restaurant Major Sources of Solid Waste in a Typical Fast-food Restaurant Design for complete compostability Fully compostable Source: The Wall Street Journal, April 17, 1991. 30% Dine in 70% Drive-thru takeout 4% Napkins 7% Polycoated 4% Plastics or 6% External Waste 34% Food Waste 34% 3% Plastics Misc. Corrugated Boxes 8% Polycoated Cups Wraps
Narayan DIN V 54900 (GERMAN) STANDARDS FOR COMPOSTABLE PLASTICS DIN CERTCO (affiliate of DIN – the German Standards Organization) has set up a certification program based on DIN V54900 standard.. A product meeting the Standard would be certified and allowed to incorporate the compostability logo LOGO US PAT 2,256,258
Narayan CERTIFICATION PROGRAM & LOGO BASED ON CEN (EUROPEAN) STANDARD CEN TC 261/SC4/WG2 -- Requirements for packaging recoverable through composting and biodegradation. Test scheme and evaluation criteria for final acceptance of packaging
Interessengemeinschaft Biologisch Abbaubare Werkstoffe e.V., Rosenheim IBAW Germany: Basic Data - Waste quantities 81 million citizens (EU 370, US 234) 226 citizens / km 2 (EU 115, US 25) 27 mtons municipal solid waste annualy 10 mtons biowaste annualy expected to be Europe´s biggest market for biodegradable materials Increase of Waste (City of Stuttgart) 19 % : Diapers, composites, metalls... Ingredients of Municipal Waste
Narayan Interessengemeinschaft Biologisch Abbaubare Werkstoffe e.V., Rosenheim IBAW Ordinance on the Avoidance and Recovery of Packaging Waste ("Packaging Ordinance", Verpackungsverordnung of 21 August 1998) Waste Legislation in Germany Closed Substance Cycle and Waste Management Act (Kreislaufswirtschafts- und Abfallwirtschaftsgesetz as "Overhead") Objective: Closing Substance Cycles (Product Recycling / Recovery- not Landfill) Producer is responsible for Product waste management (Recovery) Framework Ordinances regulate different product classes Objective: as described in title Obligation to accept returned Packaging or make use of a Dual System (household collection), charge Deposits and recover Packaging (Sales/Transport Packaging). Requirements for Systems (Recovery of Sales Packaging): working nationwide, comfortable access for households, fullfill recovery quotas
Narayan Interessengemeinschaft Biologisch Abbaubare Werkstoffe e.V., Rosenheim IBAW Recycling-Quota (%) of collected Packaging Packaging-Plastics: 1,3 mT Consumption approx. 0,9 mT collected approx. 0,6 mT recycelt (40/60 feedstock/mechanical) DSD-Charge: approx. 1.500 Euro / ton Percentage of Recycling of collected Packaging-Waste regulated by German Packaging Ordinance PLastic s
Narayan Interessengemeinschaft Biologisch Abbaubare Werkstoffe e.V., Rosenheim IBAW German Packaging Ordinance (8/98) Ordinance on the Avoidance and Recovery of Packaging Waste ("Packaging Ordinance", Verpackungsverordnung - VerpackV* of 21 August 1998)
Narayan Interessengemeinschaft Biologisch Abbaubare Werkstoffe e.V., Rosenheim IBAW Percentage of Cities and Districts with Biowaste Collection (1996) Average Today: 55-60 % of households have access to biowaste collection ("biobin") Composting Capacity: 8 Mio. Tons
Narayan Interessengemeinschaft Biologisch Abbaubare Werkstoffe e.V., Rosenheim IBAW Scheme: Dual System for compostable Packaging Dual System Compost (-ing plant) Biobi n Community (=Municipal Waste Management) Contrac Agreements Filler Bottler Consumer Retail Trade Material Flow BDP- Manufacturing/ Processing Financial Flow
Narayan MATERIAL PRODUCTION DISMANTLE PLASTICS, GLASS, RUBBER, DIRT, FINES, ETC. VEHICLE MANUFACTURE VEHICLE USE VEHICLE DISPOSAL SHRED ASR-AUTO SHREDDER RESIDUE LANDFILL PARTS FOR REUSE MATERIAL RECYCLING CATALYTIC CONVERTERS, CAR BATTERIES, ETC. FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS METALS Current Vehicle Recycling Infrastructure and ASR Disposal
Narayan Improved Vehicle Recycling Vision with Elimination of Landfill MATERIAL PRODUCTION VEHICLE MANUFACTURE VEHICLE USE VEHICLE DISPOSAL DISMANTLE VEHICLES SHRED ASR PROCESS SOLVENT EXTRACTION, CATALYTIC CONVERSION, PYROLYSIS, ETC. INCREASED POST-MANUFACTURING RECYCLING MORE PARTS FOR REUSE & LKQ PARTS MORE RECYCLED MATERIALS: SEAT FOAM, GLASS, PLASTICS, ETC. FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS METALS RECLAIMED MATERIALS AND ENERGY