Presentation on theme: "Solid Waste are useless, unwanted or hazardous materials resulting from human activities Rubbish that may decompose e.g. food materials Non-decomposable."— Presentation transcript:
Solid Waste are useless, unwanted or hazardous materials resulting from human activities Rubbish that may decompose e.g. food materials Non-decomposable waste e.g. metal, glass
Solid Waste solids from sewage treatment Ashes Large debris from construction works Industrial waste e.g. chemicals Farm waste e.g. manure, crop remains.
Ways of disposing solid waste 1. Composting Decomposition of organic waste by micro-organisms Process takes 3 weeks before the materials can be reused as fertilizers.
Ways of disposing solid waste 2. Recycling Householders are asked to separate the waste They are collected separately for recycling. This reduces the volume of waste at incinerators / landfills
Ways of disposing solid waste 3. Landfill Are used to bury waste. At the landfill site the waste is spread in thin layers & bulldozed to compact the waste between each layer.
Ways of disposing solid waste The site uses concrete linings to reduce pollution to ground water. Once full, topsoil is added & the area is often landscaped for recreational use.
Ways of disposing solid waste This is the most economic solution provided there are suitable sites available + they are close to the source of the waste High cost involved in transporting waste to landfills
Ways of disposing solid waste 4. Incineration The burning of waste materials During combustion, carbon dioxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dioxins and ash are produced.
Ways of disposing solid waste Modern installations use electrostatic precipitators, bag filters to remove any fine particles Heat from the incineration process has been used for domestic heating
Ways of disposing solid waste In recent years, fears of global warming and the release of harmful substances, dioxins, has made the siting of incinerators difficult.
Ways of disposing solid waste New generation of ‘energy from waste’ (EfW) facilities are developed They are cleaner than the old incinerators They meet UK & EU environmental standards
Ways of disposing solid waste Energy from waste facilities are an important source of renewable energy. This reduces the burden on burning fossil fuels.
Ways of disposing solid waste The ash by-product can be recycled for use in the construction industry. Some will be placed in landfills. However it will reduce the landfill capacity needed.
Ways of disposing solid waste Objections of EfW plant Incineration is the source of serious toxic pollutants e.g. dioxins Dioxins even at low level harm the environment & human health
Ways of disposing solid waste Incineration always produce a toxic ash. This has to be disposed in landfills which is more likely to pollute water