Presentation on theme: "Solid Waste Management Ahmed A.M. Abu Foul Environmental Department Islamic University of Gaza."— Presentation transcript:
Solid Waste Management Ahmed A.M. Abu Foul Environmental Department Islamic University of Gaza
What is waste? Waste = any unwanted item or substance resulting from a human activity or process More consumption more waste! –Municipal solid waste = from homes, institutions, small businesses –Industrial solid waste = from production of consumer goods, mining, petroleum extraction, agriculture –Hazardous waste = toxic, chemically reactive, flammable, or corrosive –Wastewater = water used in homes, businesses, etc., and drained or flushed, plus runoff from streets
Why do we care about waste? Waste degrades water, soil, and air quality; does environmental and ecological harm Waste can do harm to human health Waste is a symptom of inefficiency; wastes resources Waste is unpleasant aesthetically
What do we throw away?
Solid Waste Disposal Methods Open Dumps Landfills. Ocean Dumping (Many cities in the US continued ocean dumping of municipal waste until 1988) Compositing (Oil and meat products should not be put in composite); Composting is a waste disposal method that vastly reduces total waste volumes. Incineration and Resources Recovery - Refuse-derived fuel has a higher energy content than raw refuse, but requires energy to sort before burning). - One of the sources of dangerous heavy metal emissions is from incinerating batteries
Where does our trash go?
Landfills In modern sanitary landfills, waste is buried or piled up so as to avoid contamination of the environment. Site chosen carefully Bottom and sides lined with plastic and clay Groundwater monitored Collection system for leachate (liquid with dissolved contaminants from trash that leaks from landfill) Requirement to add trash and cover in optimal manner
Old Landfill Problems Leachate generation Methane production Incomplete decomposition Settling
Improving Landfills Located above water table and away from airports Contoured floor for leachate-collection system Covered with earthen material Groundwater monitoring wells
Composting Composting is the controlled biological decomposition to degrade organic matter Compost is used for fertilizer, topsoil, landfill cover, and in other ways The metabolic activity of the microorganisms can easily cause the temperature in the composting materials to rise to above 60 degree C The microorganisms also like a fairly high moisture content or about 40 to 50 percent water, The material should contain 15 to 18 percent oxygen and have a pH of 5.0 to 8.5
Small home compost bin
General design of a small composting bin for the home
Incineration Incineration recovers energy that would otherwise be lost Requires less land Reduces odor but… Emits dangerous cancer causing compounds called dioxins Does the Fume Contain Dioxins?
The three Rs REDUCE The best way for us to be more efficient and to decrease our impact on natural resources is to consume less energy and materials. Reduce is the most often overlooked of the "three Rs" REUSE Using a refillable beverage container (returnable bottles) would be an example of Reusing materials. RECYCLE Recycling, in terms of solid waste management, means melting or shredding to make new products. For example recycling aluminum is most important for saving raw materials, saving energy, saving landfill space, reducing pollutants in the air and water
Waste reduction Source reduction = preventing waste in the first place A-Personal/consumer behavior: Use fewer items Buy less-packaged and longer-lived goods Reuse items Compost B-Manufacturer behavior: Make goods with less packaging Make longer-lived goods Adopt more-efficient production methods
Why do we recycle? Save money New businesses Reduce waste People feel satisfaction in recycling responsibly – It makes us feel good! It’s simple!
Materials Recycled Aluminum Paper Plastics Iron and other metals Glass
Waste management systems and their impacts on the environment Reuse Reduce waste Recycle Incineration with energy recovery Open dump Landfill Incineration without energy recovery Maximum impact on the environment Minimum impact on environment