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The Roman Republic Compare and contrast the patricians and plebeians.

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1 The Roman Republic Compare and contrast the patricians and plebeians.
Describe the social structure and daily life of Rome. Define tribunes. What were the Punic Wars? Who was Julius Caesar? How does the Roman Republic End?

2 The Roman Republic Roman citizens were divided into two groups . The wealthiest, most powerful citizens were called patricians. All of the other citizens were called plebeians. About 90% of Roman citizens were plebeians. They included farmers, soldiers and merchants. In a republic citizens have the right to vote or choose their leaders. Those who were elected to represent the people are called representatives. Roman representatives served in a governing body called a Senate.

3 How the Romans Governed Themselves
Slaves and most foreigners were not considered citizens. Women were citizens but had few rights. They could not vote or hold public office. Women could own property and testify in court. At first only the rich patricians ran the Roman Republic. Each year two patricians were chosen as consuls, or officials who managed the government and army. Each of the consuls had the power to stop the other consul from taking an action if he did not agree with that action. In an emergency, the consuls sometimes named one person to rule called a Dictator or someone who had total control of the people.

4 The Tribunes The plebeians began to demand for more rights and threatened to start their own city. This frightened the patricians, who were afraid of losing the labor of the plebeians. Their walkout led to the creation of tribunes or officials who were elected to protect the interests of the plebeians. There were 10 tribunes that were elected and held office each year. Any one of the tribunes could stop the actions of the senate by shouting, “Veto” a latin word meaning, “I forbid”.

5 Daily Life Boys and a few girls from wealthy families got to go to school. Some students were taught at home by Greek slaves who served as tutors. After school, children played with toys such as marbles, dolls, model chariots and animals. The main meal was eaten in the afternoon. Wealthy people ate fish, birds, olive oil with herbs, dates and pork. They had dogs as pets to guard their homes. They also used dogs to hunt small animals and birds. Poor citizens ate wheat, barley, bread, olives and meat scraps. Because the climate in Rome was warm, light clothing was worn. Men wore togas and women wore two layers of tunics which resembled long shirts or gowns.

6 Roman Dress

7 Wars with Carthage Carthage was a city-state located in North Africa that had become very powerful. It’s army was one of the strongest in the ancient world. In 264 BC Rome and Carthage fought three destructive wars knows as the Punic Wars. All together, these wars lasted nearly 120 years. The Romans won all three. In the second war, the Carthaginian general Hannibal launched an invasion from Spain. He took a herd of elephants and crossed the Alps for a sneak attack against the Romans. Rome was saved when a general named Scipio attacked Carthage. 50 years later, a third war broke out. This time the Romans captured and destroyed Carthage.

8 Roads in the Republic Roman roads were built to last. Many of them lasted 1,000 years. The Appian Way is the most famous of these roads and is still used today. It stretched for more than 350 miles south and then east of Rome.

9 The Republic Ends Patricians kept the wealth for themselves.
Slaves took jobs from the plebeians. The fighting in Italy caused homes and farmland to be destroyed. Julius Caesar was one of the most famous generals or leaders. His motto was “I came, I saw, I conquered”. He became too powerful and the patricians were afraid that he would destroy the republic. In 44BC Caesar was stabbed. Civil War broke out due to leaders fighting for power.

10 Roman Road

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