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Ancient India and China Geography, Cast Systems, and Religion.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient India and China Geography, Cast Systems, and Religion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient India and China Geography, Cast Systems, and Religion

2 Geography  India and China separated by Himalayas -- two great truth seekers  Buddha and Confucius  India -- Why a sub continent?  Indus and Ganges rivers  Indus flooded each year - fertile silt  Well planned cities - Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (2500 B.C.)

3 Development of Cities  Populations of 30,000, grid like streets, walls around cities, specialized workers  Buildings, storehouses, bathhouses, storied houses, concerned with cleanliness and sanitation  Most people farmers  Domesticated animals  Crafts, rolling dice, kids had clay toys

4 The 1st Decline  1750 B.C. - Why decline - Indus changed course? Misuse of land and resources? Invaders?  1500 B.C. - Aryans moved in and no written language left - did have sanskrit (memorization of hymns and poems - learned by priests and passed orally

5 Hinduism  The Vedic Age? (page 76)  Rig-Veda = 1028 hymns - written down in 1400 B.E.  Upanishads B.C. wise Hindu teachers tried to interpret Vedic hymns and answers were memorized (pg 77)

6 The Caste system

7 The Cast System  Brahmins (mouth) - Became priests and were highest group in society  Kshatriyas (arms) - rulers and warriors  Vaishyas (legs) - Merchants, land owners and artisans  Shudras (feet) - servants and slaves  Untouchables - Not part of the gods body but did serve a purpose

8 Questions of the Caste System  Was the Caste system part of the Hindu religion as it comes in a lot of criticism for being rigid because you are born into each caste?  How does that relate to other religions and social class status in Europe

9 Rules within the Castes  People were born into castes and accepted their positions.  Caste depended upon deeds of the past lives ---- reincarnation  Karma guaranteed that good deeds in one life meant rebirth into a higher caste. Bad deeds meant lower

10 The Caste System Today  India is the 2nd largest Country  The caste system is still followed and there is an increased gap between the rich and the poor  Untouchables - dalits make up 20%  Rich - 56%, Christians 3%  Can move in the caste system now

11 Rules Continued  “just as he acts, just as he behaves, so he becomes”  Dharma = duty in caste  Funeral pyres --- burning of the dead body for journey to its new soul--wife expected to jump into husbands pyre in ancient times.

12 Siddhartha Guatama (Buddha)  Buddha was born into a high caste in 563 B.C. He had a privilidged life and never saw pain and suffering until he was an adult.  He realized that life was an endless cycle of pain and only escape form it was wisdom (page 79)

13 4 noble truths 1)Everything in life is suffering and sorrow 2)Cause of all Pain in desires -- seek pleasure that cannot last and leads to rebirth and more suffering 3)What to end all pain is to end all desires 4)People can overcome desires and gain enlightenment of they follow the eightfold path (see next slide

14 The eight fold path 1)Right knowledge 2)Right purpose 3)Right speech 4)Right action 5)Right living 6)Right effort 7)Right mindfulness 8)Right mediation

15 Eightfold Path  Like a staircase -- master one step  Then you can reach nirvana  Nirvana = release of pain and suffering  Treat all living things with love/kindness  Showed concern for all -- men, women, low born, high born  Would not even swat a mosquito

16 China  Chinese viewed themselves as the center of the universe  All others were barbarians  Strong bonds held society together  Family (page 84) filial piety  Dead family members could bring good or bad.  Sacrifices were made to fathers family

17 Government  Ruler was like a grandfather to chinese  Mandate of Heaven  Dynastic Cycle  Famous dynasties - Shang, Chou, Ch’in, Han  The video will explain these dynasties

18 Geography and engineering  Yellow River - China’s sorrow; Loess (yellow ) silt was distributed for planting  Silkworms - crime to share knowledge of making silk in the ancient world  Use of Oracle Bones (Writing)

19 The Great Wall  Built for protection  Many labored to build it (Chin dynasty)  Where bodies thrown in as fillers?  Can the great wall can be seen from space?  Wonder of the world and the longest man made structure.  About 30 feet high and 10 feet wide  How long is the wall? Different sources

20 Confucius  Born 551 B.C. (12 years younger)  Said that social order and good government would result if organized around 5 basic relationships

21 5 relationships 1)Ruler and subject 2)Father and son 3)Husband and wife 4)Older brother and younger brother 5)Friend and friend *Respect on these levels is important.


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