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The Harappan Civilization 3300 BCE - 2400 BCE Citadel of Mohenjo-Daro Grid layout.

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Presentation on theme: "The Harappan Civilization 3300 BCE - 2400 BCE Citadel of Mohenjo-Daro Grid layout."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Harappan Civilization 3300 BCE BCE

3 Citadel of Mohenjo-Daro Grid layout

4 Aerial View of Mohenjo-Daro

5 Wide View, Mohenjo-Daro

6 Main Street, Mohenjo-Daro

7 pottery, Mohenjo-Daro

8 Bison Seal, Mohenjo-Daro

9 Necklace, Mohenjo-Daro

10 Public Well, Harappa

11 Unicorn Seal, Harappa

12 Burial Pottery, Harappa

13 Harappan Writing Undecipherable to date.

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15 Aryan Migration  pastoral  depended on their cattle.  warriors  horse-drawn chariots.

16 Sanskrit writing

17 The Vedas  1200 BCE-600 BCE.  written in SANSKRIT.  Hinduism roots in Vedas  Caste system  Dharma Rig Veda  oldest work

18 Varna (Social Hierarchy) Shudras Vaishyas Kshatriyas Brahmins Pariahs -- Untouchables

19 Hinduism Many deities – Brahma-creator – Vishnu-preserver – Siva-destroyer Upanishads – Self denial—fasting – Yoga—discipline Reincarnation Karma – Ahimsa

20 History of Religion religion.html

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22 Religions of South Asia

23 Buddhism in the Subcontinent

24 The essence of Buddhism  The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”  2,500 year old tradition.  Buddha, the teacher.  Dharma, the teachings.

25 Siddhartha Gautama ( BCE)  Born in NE India (Nepal).  Raised in great luxury to be a king.  At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.  Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 years.  Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.  Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.

26 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!  Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.

27 Four Noble Truths 1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. 2. The cause of suffering is self- centered desire and attachments. 3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path

28 Eightfold Path Nirvana   The union with the ultimate spiritual reality..  Escape from the cycle of rebirth.

29 Spread of Buddhism Missionaries and traders helped to spread the religion

30 Buddha 19c Thailand Buddha’s head 2c Pakistan

31 Zen Buddhism  Seeks sudden enlightenment through meditation, arriving at emptiness  Beauty, art, and aesthetics:  Gardens.  Archery.  Tea ceremony.  Calligraphy.

32 China’s History

33 Huang He River Shang Dynasty BCE

34 Oracle Bones

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36 Zhou BCE

37 Mandate of Heaven The Zhou justified taking over from the Shang by saying that they had lost divine approval to rule

38 Zhou Dynasty BCE Leaders/Traits Walled cities Trade routes between cities Mandate of Heaven Feudalism Philosophy Daoism – Laozi – 500’s BCE Confucianism – Analects – Chaotic government as Zhou was in decline – 522 BCE

39 Confucianism Based on five relationships – Ruler/subject – Husband/wife – Father/son – Older brother/younger brother – Friend/friend Not a religion Women were subservient to men Wanted to reform society by showing rulers how to govern wisely Laid groundwork for creation of a bureaucracy [a trained civil service who runs the government] Examination system

40 Qin Dynasty BCE Shi Huangdi-First Emperor  Ruthless—Totalitarian  Legalism adopted  Territorial Expansion begins 214 BCE  Book burning-213 BCE  Standardized weights and measures  Single money system  Uniform writing system  Postal system  Great Wall  Bankrupted China  Pottery Army-210 BCE  Forced labor  First time China united as one empire  Agricultural  Trade/merchants

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42 Great Wall

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44 Terra Cotta Army

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