The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.” 2,500 year old tradition. Buddha, the teacher. Dharma, the teachings.
Siddhartha Gautama ( BCE) Born in NE India (Nepal). Raised in great luxury to be a king. At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering. Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 years. Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana. Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
Four Noble Truths 1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. 2. The cause of suffering is self- centered desire and attachments. 3. The solution is to eliminate desire and attachments 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path Nirvana The union with the ultimate spiritual reality.. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
Spread of Buddhism Missionaries and traders helped to spread the religion
Buddha 19c Thailand Buddha’s head 2c Pakistan
Zen Buddhism Seeks sudden enlightenment through meditation, arriving at emptiness Beauty, art, and aesthetics: Gardens. Archery. Tea ceremony. Calligraphy.
Huang He River Shang Dynasty BCE
Mandate of Heaven The Zhou justified taking over from the Shang by saying that they had lost divine approval to rule
Zhou Dynasty BCE Leaders/Traits Walled cities Trade routes between cities Mandate of Heaven Feudalism Philosophy Daoism – Laozi – 500’s BCE Confucianism – Analects – Chaotic government as Zhou was in decline – 522 BCE
Confucianism Based on five relationships – Ruler/subject – Husband/wife – Father/son – Older brother/younger brother – Friend/friend Not a religion Women were subservient to men Wanted to reform society by showing rulers how to govern wisely Laid groundwork for creation of a bureaucracy [a trained civil service who runs the government] Examination system
Qin Dynasty BCE Shi Huangdi-First Emperor Ruthless—Totalitarian Legalism adopted Territorial Expansion begins 214 BCE Book burning-213 BCE Standardized weights and measures Single money system Uniform writing system Postal system Great Wall Bankrupted China Pottery Army-210 BCE Forced labor First time China united as one empire Agricultural Trade/merchants