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FORCED MIGRATION: The Atlantic Slave Trade Roderick A. McDonald ONMAP February 27, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "FORCED MIGRATION: The Atlantic Slave Trade Roderick A. McDonald ONMAP February 27, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 FORCED MIGRATION: The Atlantic Slave Trade Roderick A. McDonald ONMAP February 27, 2008

2 Figures based on Philip Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison, 1969), 268. Slave Trade Distribution ____________________________ DestinationSlave Imports% of Trade ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Brazil4,000,00035% British Caribbean2,000,00018% British North America500,0004% Danish Caribbean28,000under 1% Dutch Caribbean500,0004% Europe175,0002% French Caribbean1,600,00014% Spanish America2,500,00022% TOTAL11,328,000100%

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7 Nationality of Ships Engaged in the Slave Trade, CarrierCaptivesPer Cent British2,468, Portuguese1,888, French1,104, Dutch349, North American206, Danish66, Other (Swedish, German, et. al). 10, TOTAL6,091,000 Source: Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge, 2000)

8 Source: Kongo's King Alvaro receiving Dutch emissaries in Olfert Dapper, Description de l'Afrique, & van Someren, 1686)

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25 “When I looked round the ship too and saw a large furnace of copper boiling, and a multitude of black people of every description chained together, every one of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate and quite overpowered with sorrow and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted.... I asked if we were not to be eaten by those white men with horrible looks, red faces and long hair?"

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28 "The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died."

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31 (A) pair of handcuffs for men (right wrist of one person was padlocked to left wrist of another) (B) leg shackles for men (right ankle of one is fastened to left ankle of another) ( C,D,E,) the thumbscrew used for punishing slaves (F,G,H) speculum orum or mouth opener (used by surgeons aboard slave ships for force feeding, in cases of "locked jaw" or on persons who "for one reason or another refused to eat or could not eat").

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46 Legal End of Atlantic Slave Trade ____________________________ Denmark1792 (1802) Britain1807 (1808) United States1807 (1808) Holland1814 France1818 Spain1817/1820 Portugal 1818/1839 Brazil1826/1845

47 Dates of Emancipation ____________________________ Haiti1804 British West Indies1833 (begins); 1838 French West Indies1848 Danish West Indies1848 Dutch West Indies1863 United States1865 Cuba1886 Brazil1888

48 FORCED MIGRATION: The Atlantic Slave Trade Roderick A. McDonald ONMAP February 27, 2008

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