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Middle Passages Institute 2011 University of York Wednesday | Aug 3 | 2011 Ships, Crews, and Cargoes.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Passages Institute 2011 University of York Wednesday | Aug 3 | 2011 Ships, Crews, and Cargoes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Passages Institute 2011 University of York Wednesday | Aug 3 | 2011 Ships, Crews, and Cargoes

2 1. Senegambia [Senegal, Gambia] 2. Sierra Leone [Sierra Leone] 3. Windward Coast [Liberia, Ivory Coast] 4. Gold Coast [Ghana] 5. Bight of Benin [Togo, Benin, Southwest Nigeria] 6. Bight of Biafra [Southeast Nigeria, Gabon, Cameroon] 7. West-Central Africa [Congo, Angola] 8. Southeast Africa [Mozambique] Eight Regions of European Trade in Africa:

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4 Articles of Agreement of the Sally, July 22, 1785 Source: Elizabeth Donnan, ed., Documents Illustrative of the Slave Trade to America, 4 vols (Washington, D.C., ), Vol. 2, TSTD Voyage ID: 17959

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6 May 1686: Instructions to Samuel Kempthorne, Captain of the Loyall Factors, for a voyage to Angola to purchase 300 enslaved Africans TSTD Voyage ID: 15246

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8 Trade Cargoes assembled by the Royal African Company of England

9 May 1693: Cargo valued at ₤2600, put aboard the East India Merchant to purchase 650 enslaved Africans at Whydah (Bight of Benin)

10 June 1688: Cargo valued at ₤1098, put aboard the John to purchase enslaved Africans at Angola

11 July 1677: Account of slaves purchased for the Sarah Bonadventure

12 The Brookes

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14 Bill of Lading for slave cargo aboard the Speedwell, 1689 TSTD Voyage ID: 9815

15 Sale of enslaved Africans aboard the Sarah Bonadventure, Jamaica, 1677

16 TSTD Voyage ID: Source: “Slave Ship Fredensborg II, 1788”; Image Reference NW0037, as shown on sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library

17 Source: “Enslaved Africans Transported to Slave Ships, Gold Coast, late 17 th cent.”; Image Reference LCP-54, as shown on sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library

18 Source: “Irons and Shackles Used on Slave Ships, late 18 th cent.”; Image Reference FO18, as shown on sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library This drawing appears in Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British parliament (London, 1808), vol. 1, between pp Clarkson explains (pp ) that he purchased these items in a shop in Liverpool and that they had been used on slave ships. A, pair of handcuffs for men (right wrist of one person was padlocked to left wrist of another); B, leg shackles for men (right ankle of one is fastened to left ankle of another); C,D,E, the thumbscrew used for punishing slaves ("The thumbs are put into this instrument through the two circular holes at the top of it. By turning a key, a bar rises up by means of a screw from C to D, and the pressure upon them becomes painful. By turning it further you may make the blood start from the ends of them..."); F,G,H, speculum oris or mouth opener (used by surgeons aboard slave ships for force feeding, in cases of "locked jaw" or on persons who "for one reason or another refused to eat or could not eat").

19 TSTD Voyage ID (see also 30910, 30941) View of Cap Francais, St. Domingue (Haiti) and slave ship. Shows purchase of slaves aft on the main deck, an iron barrier separating them from the quarter-deck, and Europeans apparently having a picnic on the stern; also cross- section of ship's hull with storage quarters. Caption on illustration reads: "Vue du Cap Francais et du n[avi]re la Marie Seraphique de Nantes, Capitaine Gaugy, le jour de l'ouverture de sa vente, troisieme voyage d'Angole, 1772,1773" [View of Cap Francais and the Marie Seraphique of Nantes/Captain Gaugy/the day of the opening of its [slave] sale [after] its third voyage from Angola, 1772, 1773]. Source: “French Slave Ship, La Marie-Séraphique, Saint Domingue (Haiti), 1773”; Image Reference EO30, as shown on sponsored by the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library

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