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Ch. 16: Section IV: Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade (Pages 377-381) This section is about: This section is about: How European explorers of Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 16: Section IV: Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade (Pages 377-381) This section is about: This section is about: How European explorers of Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 16: Section IV: Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade (Pages ) This section is about: This section is about: How European explorers of Africa encouraged the use of slave labor and eventually led to the Atlantic slave trade. How European explorers of Africa encouraged the use of slave labor and eventually led to the Atlantic slave trade. Triangular trade and its impact on enslaved Africans in the Americas as well as on West African culture and population. Triangular trade and its impact on enslaved Africans in the Americas as well as on West African culture and population.

2 There were a lot of peoples involved in the slave trade – more than just Africans and Americans There were a lot of peoples involved in the slave trade – more than just Africans and Americans One of the vocabulary word definitions on page 377 shows that (triangular trade). One of the vocabulary word definitions on page 377 shows that (triangular trade). Also look at the “Main Ideas” on page 377 Also look at the “Main Ideas” on page 377

3 European Exploration in Africa Slavery had been in the world since ancient times. Slavery had been in the world since ancient times. What’s different about this time is the levels that it reached by the 1500’s. What’s different about this time is the levels that it reached by the 1500’s. This mostly goes back to Europeans exploring Africa and a way around it in the 1400’s (Henry the Navigator, Vasco da Gama…..) This mostly goes back to Europeans exploring Africa and a way around it in the 1400’s (Henry the Navigator, Vasco da Gama…..)

4 Slavery in Africa African slavery was around even in 1000 AD. African slavery was around even in 1000 AD. Often it was as punishment for criminals and prisoners of war. Often it was as punishment for criminals and prisoners of war. Sometimes they were more servants than slaves, some could even “earn” their freedom, and it was not hereditary. Sometimes they were more servants than slaves, some could even “earn” their freedom, and it was not hereditary. These forms of slavery changed when the Europeans showed up – they considered these people possessions they could buy and sell and use for all kinds of labor. These forms of slavery changed when the Europeans showed up – they considered these people possessions they could buy and sell and use for all kinds of labor.

5 The Portuguese in Africa Remember the Portuguese exploring and building forts? Remember the Portuguese exploring and building forts? Some Africans were sold to these Portuguese as early as 1440 (sometimes by African rulers). Some Africans were sold to these Portuguese as early as 1440 (sometimes by African rulers). After they built some colonies (in/near Africa), the Portuguese needed more workers, and they now knew where to get them. After they built some colonies (in/near Africa), the Portuguese needed more workers, and they now knew where to get them. They did not treat them well – making them work long hours (looking for gold) under harsh conditions. They did not treat them well – making them work long hours (looking for gold) under harsh conditions.

6 The Atlantic Slave Trade In Europe, slavery was just about gone by the 1400’s. In Europe, slavery was just about gone by the 1400’s. But the Portuguese got it going again. But the Portuguese got it going again. By 1600, 275,000 Africans had been shipped across the Atlantic. By 1600, 275,000 Africans had been shipped across the Atlantic. In the 1700’s, there were about 6 million more. In the 1700’s, there were about 6 million more.

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8 Plantation Laborers By the 1520’s Spain and Portugal were sending slaves to the Caribbean (where they grew sugar cane). By the 1520’s Spain and Portugal were sending slaves to the Caribbean (where they grew sugar cane). Sugar Plantations needed a lot of (cheap) labor to work the fields and make a profit (no machines then). Sugar Plantations needed a lot of (cheap) labor to work the fields and make a profit (no machines then). They had tried to use Native Americans, but many of them had died from diseases. They had tried to use Native Americans, but many of them had died from diseases. Remember Bartolome de las Casas? (He was a big defender of Native Americans). Remember Bartolome de las Casas? (He was a big defender of Native Americans). He also convinced everyone Africans could fight the diseases better than Native Americans. He also convinced everyone Africans could fight the diseases better than Native Americans.

9 Competing for Trade The Portuguese were the first big slave trading country. The Portuguese were the first big slave trading country. Then, the Dutch (and the Dutch West India Company) took control of the West African Coast – and by 1640 were the main slave suppliers to the Spanish in the Caribbean. Then, the Dutch (and the Dutch West India Company) took control of the West African Coast – and by 1640 were the main slave suppliers to the Spanish in the Caribbean. They eventually even took over all the Portuguese forts along the coast They eventually even took over all the Portuguese forts along the coast England and France also were starting to build some colonies at this time. England and France also were starting to build some colonies at this time. ……………………. …………………….

10 The French and English didn’t want the Dutch getting all the money from this trade, so they started to form their own trading companies. The French and English didn’t want the Dutch getting all the money from this trade, so they started to form their own trading companies. And, some wars developed over this and power in general – between the English, the French, and the Dutch. And, some wars developed over this and power in general – between the English, the French, and the Dutch. The Dutch lost some power during this – leaving England and France to compete for dominance (with England a little stronger). The Dutch lost some power during this – leaving England and France to compete for dominance (with England a little stronger).

11 Triangular Trade Routes This slave trade was just one part of a “triangular trade.” This slave trade was just one part of a “triangular trade.” Again – let’s look at U.S. History class information. Again – let’s look at U.S. History class information. …….. ……..

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14 The Middle Passage If 6-7 million Africans were slaves – more than that were actually taken from Africa. We don’t know how many, but X % didn’t survive the trip (disease, harsh treatment, disasters at sea). If 6-7 million Africans were slaves – more than that were actually taken from Africa. We don’t know how many, but X % didn’t survive the trip (disease, harsh treatment, disasters at sea). There was great suffering on the trip. People chained together. People chained together. Cramped closed in places. Cramped closed in places. Rarely allowed above deck. Rarely allowed above deck. Food one/twice a day Food one/twice a day Some tried to jump overboard. Some tried to jump overboard. Resisters were beaten/tortured. Resisters were beaten/tortured. And once you survived the trip it may even get worse And once you survived the trip it may even get worse

15 Impact of the Slave Trade on Western Africa We always look at what happened with slavery in the Americas. We always look at what happened with slavery in the Americas. But, don’t ever forget what it did to Africa – they lost a lot of people. But, don’t ever forget what it did to Africa – they lost a lot of people. Some groups and some cultures of Africa were lost forever. Some groups and some cultures of Africa were lost forever. Many of the strongest and best men of Africa were taken from their own people. Many of the strongest and best men of Africa were taken from their own people. The distrust among Africans (with each other) led to many other problems – some still today The distrust among Africans (with each other) led to many other problems – some still today

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