Place of Origin/Timeframe K'ung Fu Tzu (Confucius) 551 – 479 BCE Born in province of Lu during the Chou dynasty Mother taught him to master the six arts (ritual, music, archery, chariteering, calligraphy, arithmetic) Father was a commander that died when he was three. Founders and Key Figures - Confucius
Place of Origin/Timeframe Opened a school at 22 Success led to appointment as magistrate of town of Chung-tu then minister of justice of Lu After a conflict with the Marquis of Lu in 496 BCE, he left the state and travelled and taught for 11 years throughout China. Founders and Key Figures - Confucius
Place of Origin/Timeframe He returned home at the age of 67 and taught and studied until his death At the time of his death, he had 72 disciples whom all mastered the 6 arts and 3000 followers Founders and Key Figures - Confucius
Place of Origin/Timeframe A year after his death, the Confucius temple was constructed in Qufu, China Founders and Key Figures - Confucius
Place of Origin/Timeframe 390 – 305 BCE Claimed people needed to remain grounded avoid the trap of dwelling on God Believed people are naturally good and evil is learned Founders and Key Figures - Mencius
Place of Origin/Timeframe 298 – 238 BCE Challenged the teachings of Mencius and Confucius Warned that human nature was inherently evil and easily corrupted unless taught otherwise Wrote 32 essays that clarified the belief system Founders and Key Figures – Hsun Tzu
Key Beliefs Confucian ethical teachings include: Li: Ritual, propriety, etiquette Hsiao: Love within the family: love of parents for their children and of children for their parents Yi: righteousness Xin: honesty and trustworthiness Ren: benevolence, humaneness towards others; the highest Confucian virtue Chung: loyalty to the state, etc.
Key Beliefs The Five Relationship Bonds: From most important to least (however, all stand very equally) Ruler to Subject Father to Son Husband to Wife Elder Brother to Younger Brother Friend to Friend.
Key Beliefs never indicated doing anything for a "God" in his teachings main prerogative was to promote a social system based on "good conduct" and virtue instead of the pervading class system of his time. beliefs helped shape the intense meritocracies and filial loyalties of East Asian countries today God?
Key Practices, Rituals and Ceremonies The T’ai-shen (spirit of the fetus) is said to protect the mother A special procedure is used to dispose the placenta Birth
Key Practices, Rituals and Ceremonies Birth Mother is given a special diet and allowed to rest for a month after delivery Mother is given a special diet and allowed to rest for a month after delivery Mother’s family of origin supplies all the items needed by the baby on the first, fourth, and twelfth monthly anniversary of the birth Mother’s family of origin supplies all the items needed by the baby on the first, fourth, and twelfth monthly anniversary of the birth
Key Practices, Rituals and Ceremonies Marriage There are six stages: 1.Proposal: couple exchange the eight characters (year, month, day, and hour of each of their births) 2.Engagement: bride announces the wedding with invitations and a gift of cookies made in the shape of the moon
Key Practices, Rituals and Ceremonies Marriage 3. Dowry: Bride-price is sent to the bride by the groom’s parents. Gifts by the groom to the bride, equal in value to the dowry are sent 4. Procession: Groom visits bride’s home and brings her back to his place.
Key Practices, Rituals and Ceremonies Marriage 5. Marriage and Reception: Couple recite their vows and toast each other with wine 6. Morning after: The bride serves breakfast to the groom’s parents
Key Practices, Rituals and Ceremonies Death Family puts on clothes made of course material while they mournFamily puts on clothes made of course material while they mourn Corpse is washed and placed in a coffinCorpse is washed and placed in a coffin Mourners bring incense and money to offset funeral costMourners bring incense and money to offset funeral cost Food and significant objects of the deceased are placed into the coffinFood and significant objects of the deceased are placed into the coffin
Key Practices, Rituals and Ceremonies Death A Buddhist/Taoist priest or Christian minister performs the burial ritualA Buddhist/Taoist priest or Christian minister performs the burial ritual Friends and family follow coffin to cemetery along with a willow branch which symbolizes the soul of the personFriends and family follow coffin to cemetery along with a willow branch which symbolizes the soul of the person Rituals are performed on 7 th, 9 th, 49 th day after burial and 1 st and 3 rd anniversaries of the deathRituals are performed on 7 th, 9 th, 49 th day after burial and 1 st and 3 rd anniversaries of the death
Symbols/ Images Although it is the primary symbol of Taoism, it is also used in Confucianism. Means that that everything in the universe is made of two conflicting forces: the yin and the yang. Yin is the negative, depicted in black. Yang is the positive, depicted in white. Harmony can only be achieved when the two are perfectly balanced like in the circle. Yin and Yang
Symbols/ Images human heartedness; goodness; benevolence. Jen
Influence in the 21 st Century Cultures and countries strongly influenced: China (mainland), Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Singapore. China (mainland)KoreaTaiwanVietnamSingaporeChina (mainland)KoreaTaiwanVietnamSingapore basic teachings stress the importance of moral development of the individual, so that the state can be governed by moral virtue, rather than by the use of coercive laws.
Influence in the 21 st Century In 88 countries, there are 282 Confucius Institute around the world. They are a non-profit organization that aims to promote the Chinese language and culture. Its headquarters is in Beijing and is under the Office of Chinese Language Council International. Its headquarters is in Beijing and is under the Office of Chinese Language Council International. Beijing
Influence in the 21 st Century In the family tree (regarded as the world’s longest, recording more than 80 generations) two million people are now recognised as being descendants of the Chinese philosopher Confucius In the family tree (regarded as the world’s longest, recording more than 80 generations) two million people are now recognised as being descendants of the Chinese philosopher Confucius Confucianism has traditionally given women a lower status than men in its strict hierarchy, so female descendants were not counted, but genealogists announced in 2006 that they had decided to "move with the times".
Religious Significance Confucianism becomes the State ideology by the Han Dynasty in 136 B.C. 960- 1127 era of Confucianism dominance even after other religions have entered China such as Buddhism 1127 the growth of Neo- Confucianism begins and is dominant till 1911 in China Over time now, Confucianism has become a commonly practiced religion in many other East Asian countries such as Vietnam, and Korea