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Philosophy & Religion in China  Early Ideology  Confucianism.

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Presentation on theme: "Philosophy & Religion in China  Early Ideology  Confucianism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philosophy & Religion in China  Early Ideology  Confucianism

2 Early Chinese Ideology  Believed in spirits  Held reverence for ancestors  Priests performed blessing rituals: –Purifying space –Exorcised evil spirits (“hungry ghosts”)  Used Astrology & Divination

3 Early Chinese Ideology Chinese Creation Myths  Multiple versions of a similar story  The universe was a black egg  Pangu broke the egg and the world was created –Hairy giant –Dog

4 Early Chinese Ideology Yin and Yang  Yin: female, dark, weak, wet, passive  Yang: male, bright, strong, dry, active  Balance of opposites

5 Confucianism A political and social philosophy seeking social harmony on all levels: Within the self …the family …the community...the state …the nation …the world …the cosmos

6 Confucianism - Origins Kung-Fu-tzu (Confucius) “Master Kung”  551 - 479 BCE  Embraced the values of the past  Political aspirations failed  The “greatest teacher who ever lived”  Rejected in his own day, but the model for Chinese culture for over 2000 years

7 Confucianism - Texts  The “Four Books” (Confucian) –Analects (Lun Yu) –Doctrine of the Mean –The Great Learning –The Book of Mencius (Meng-Tzu)

8 Beliefs and Practices To develop one’s Jen: Human Heartedness - the innate goodness of humanity Thus becoming a Chun Tzu: the “Great Man” or “Gentle Man” Jen is developed through intentional living by Confucian virtues…

9 Belief & Practices Filial Piety (Hsiao) - respect for the five constant relationships: –Parent & child –Husband & wife –Older & younger sibling –Older & younger friend –Ruler & subject

10 Belief & Practices  Reciprocity (shu) – the Golden Rule: –“Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you”  Li (rites, ritual) – the inherent “pattern” in things –For Confucius, Li is the social context of human behavior

11 Belief & Practices Education  “In teaching, there should be no distinction of classes.” (Analects XV, 39)  Education leads to moral virtue  Rule by natural law, not force Roles  “There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.” (Analects XII, 11)

12 Appeal  To hold a position in government, one had to demonstrate knowledge –Civil Service Exam  Provided rules on conduct and morality which were necessary in densely populated China

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