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Published byPreston McKenzie Modified over 7 years ago
Philosophy & Religion in China Early Ideology Confucianism
Early Chinese Ideology Believed in spirits Held reverence for ancestors Priests performed blessing rituals: –Purifying space –Exorcised evil spirits (“hungry ghosts”) Used Astrology & Divination
Early Chinese Ideology Chinese Creation Myths Multiple versions of a similar story The universe was a black egg Pangu broke the egg and the world was created –Hairy giant –Dog
Early Chinese Ideology Yin and Yang Yin: female, dark, weak, wet, passive Yang: male, bright, strong, dry, active Balance of opposites
Confucianism A political and social philosophy seeking social harmony on all levels: Within the self …the family …the community...the state …the nation …the world …the cosmos
Confucianism - Origins Kung-Fu-tzu (Confucius) “Master Kung” 551 - 479 BCE Embraced the values of the past Political aspirations failed The “greatest teacher who ever lived” Rejected in his own day, but the model for Chinese culture for over 2000 years
Confucianism - Texts The “Four Books” (Confucian) –Analects (Lun Yu) –Doctrine of the Mean –The Great Learning –The Book of Mencius (Meng-Tzu)
Beliefs and Practices To develop one’s Jen: Human Heartedness - the innate goodness of humanity Thus becoming a Chun Tzu: the “Great Man” or “Gentle Man” Jen is developed through intentional living by Confucian virtues…
Belief & Practices Filial Piety (Hsiao) - respect for the five constant relationships: –Parent & child –Husband & wife –Older & younger sibling –Older & younger friend –Ruler & subject
Belief & Practices Reciprocity (shu) – the Golden Rule: –“Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you” Li (rites, ritual) – the inherent “pattern” in things –For Confucius, Li is the social context of human behavior
Belief & Practices Education “In teaching, there should be no distinction of classes.” (Analects XV, 39) Education leads to moral virtue Rule by natural law, not force Roles “There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.” (Analects XII, 11)
Appeal To hold a position in government, one had to demonstrate knowledge –Civil Service Exam Provided rules on conduct and morality which were necessary in densely populated China
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