Freud's Early Exploration into the Unconscious Used hypnosis and free association (relax and say it all) to delve into unconscious. Mapped out the “mental dominoes” of the patients past in a process he called psychoanalysis.
Freud's Personality Structure Ego Superego Id The layers of your Psyche
Id Unconscious energy that drives us to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
Superego Part of personality that represents our internalized ideals. Standards of judgment or our morals.
Ego The boss “executive” of the conscious. Its job is to mediate the desires of the Id and Superego. Called the “reality principle”.
Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development Early Childhood experiences most important. –Unresolved conflicts Psychosexual stages. –The id focuses its libido (sexual energy) on different erogenous zones.
Oral Stage 0-18 months Pleasure center is on the mouth. Sucking, biting and chewing.
Anal Stage 18-36 months Pleasure focuses on bladder and bowel control. Controlling ones life and independence. Anal retentive
Phallic Stage 3-6 years Pleasure zone is the genitals. Coping with incestuous feelings. Oedipus and Electra complexes.
Oedipus Complex A baby's fight for mom's attention
Latency Stage 6- puberty Dormant sexual feeling. Cooties stage.
Genital Stage Puberty to death. Maturation of sexual interests.
Regression When faced with anxiety the person retreats to a more infantile stage. Thumb sucking on the first day of school.
Reaction Formation Ego switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Being mean to someone you have a crush on.
Projection Disguise your own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. Thinking that your spouse wants to cheat on you when it is you that really want to cheat.
Rationalization Offers self- adjusting explanations in place of real, more threatening reasons for your actions. You don’t get into a college and say, “I really did not want to go there it was too far away!!”
Displacement Shifts the unacceptable impulses towards a safer outlet. Instead of yelling at a teacher, you will take anger out on a friend (by peeing on his car).
Sublimation Re-channel their unacceptable impulses towards more acceptable or socially approved activities. Channel feeling of homosexuality into aggressive sports play.
Compensation Making up for an unconscious impulse that we are inferior in some way
How do we assess the unconscious? 425-429 We can use hypnosis or free association. A dangerous method But more often we use projective tests.
Projective Tests A personality test. Provides an ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics. Examples Are:
TAT Thematic Apperception Test A projective test which people express their inner feelings through stories they make about ambiguous scenes
Neo-Freudians Psychologists that took some premises from Freud and built upon them. Alfred Adler Karen Horney Carl Jung
Alfred Adler Childhood is important to personality. –Interested in social factors not sexual Our behavior is driven by our efforts to conquer inferiority and feel superior. Inferiority Complex – feelings of inadequacy Superiority Complex – overcompensation by exaggerating accomplishments
Karen Horney Children feel helpless anxiety How feelings dealt with have long lasting effects on relationships –Moving towards others –Moving against –Moving away Not just “penis envy,” “womb envy”
Carl Jung Less emphasis on social factors. –Unconscious importance We all have a collective unconscious: a shared/inherited well of memory traces from our species history. –Made up of archetypes. –Persona = your public image
Harry Potter as an example of Archetypes – who’s the father, mother, child, wise old man, hero, maiden, trickster…?