Presentation on theme: "The Panic and the Miracle. Sam Houston takes control After the disasters at the Alamo and Goliad, Sam Houston took control of the Texas Army. He ordered."— Presentation transcript:
The Panic and the Miracle
Sam Houston takes control After the disasters at the Alamo and Goliad, Sam Houston took control of the Texas Army. He ordered Gonzales burned and the people and his troops to evacuate to the east. He was determined to raise a proper army.
The Runaway Scrape After the fall of the Alamo and Goliad, Santa Anna and Urrea began moving east into the Texian colonies. The settlers panicked. They gathered a few personal possessions, abandoned their homes, and headed east under the most difficult conditions. Rain and cold weather during the period slowed the settler's eastward progress along the muddy roads and trails.
Texas settler Frances Sutherland to her sister in Tennessee.: We thought prudent to stay at home and did so until the General thought proper to retreat. We, being on the frontier, were compelled to go. We went to the Colorado, 40 miles, but after some time, the general thought proper to retreat farther and of course we had to go, too. We proceeded to the Brazos River. There stopped a few days, but dread and fear caused another start; there Mr. Sutherland quit us and joined the army…with a good many more of our citizens, however, we went on for several miles and again stopped, hoping we would not have to go farther, but someone over there that week brought in the early news the Mexican army was crossing the Brazos not more than 40 miles behind us. Again we started and traveled two days then heard the army was 20 miles behind. (I wish you could know how the people did as they kept going about trying to get somewhere, but no person knew where they were trying to get to.) Several weeks passed on without any certain account from the army. All this time you could hardly guess my feelings. My poor William gone in the army, me with my three little daughters and my poor Thomas wandering about, not knowing what to do or where to go. You will guess my feelings were dreadful, but ever the Lord supported me, and was on our side…
The Runaway Scrape would last all of March and April of Houston marched his troops to the east closer and closer to Louisiana. Houston believed that the United States Army stationed there may aide him, possibly even get into a fight with Mexican troops, causing the U.S. to declare war on Mexico.
As Houston went east his army grew. More and more volunteers from the Texians settlers and U.S. joined him. As his army fled they also burned crops and cities so the Mexican army couldn’t use them. As they fled more and more people wanted him to fight. But Houston wanted to wait for the perfect opportunity. Houston was able to stop for two weeks to train his army at Groce’s Plantation.
Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna split from his main army (which was slowing him down) so he could catch up with the Texians. Santa Anna thought he had Houston’s army cornered near Harrisburg (near modern day Houston) and decided to rest and camp his 700 man army on April 19 th at San Jacinto creek.
The next day, April 20 th, Houston camped his men in the woods nearby and decided the time was right to fight: This morning we are in preparation to meet Santa Anna. It is the only chance of saving Texas. From time to time I have looked for reinforcements in vain. We will only have about 700 to march with. We go to conquer. It is wisdom growing out of necessity to meet and fight the enemy now. The troops are in fine spirits, and now is the time for action. We will use our best efforts to fight the enemy to such advantage, as will ensure victory, tho’ the odds is greatly against us. I leave the result in the hands of a wise God and rely upon his Providence. My country will do justice to those who serve her. The rights for which we fight will be secured, and Texas Free. Sam Houston Commander in Chief
The same day that Houston wrote his letter, some of his cavalry fought with Santa Anna forces in a brief skirmish. Mirabeau B. Lamar, a private, so distinguished himself that on the next day he was placed in command of the cavalry
Juan Seguin Tejano and San Antonio native would lead the Tejanos in the battle. His father Erasmo Seguin had helped Austin pick out the land for his colony Seguin was at the Alamo but left when he carried a letter to Houston. Houston then would not let him return fearing for his life. Seguin fought hard during the runaway scrape to hold back the Mexican Army
Santa Anna forces were reinforced by General Cos to about 1,400. Houston ordered Deaf Smith to destroy Vince’s Bridge so the Mexicans could receive no more reinforcements.
On the 21 st Houston did not attack in the morning which led Santa Anna believe that he would not attack. Cos’ soldiers were tired after marching all night so he decided to let his soldiers rest.
Houston and the Texians attacked at 3p.m.
The Texians shouted “Remember the Alamo!” and “Remember Goliad”
The Mexican troops were caught totally off guard. The Texians overran the Mexican lines and the battle lasted about 18 minutes.
The battle quickly became a slaughter. Most of the Mexican soldiers ran within the first few minutes of the battle and were hunted down by the Texians Around 600 or more Mexicans were killed and 700 captured. 10 Texians lost their lives.
Account of San Jacinto by Moses Bryan (Nephew of Stephen F. Austin) The most awful slaughter I ever saw was when the Texans pursued the retreating Mexicans, killing on all sides, even the wounded… I came upon a young Mexican drummer boy lying on his face. One of the volunteers pricked him with his bayonet. The boy (whose legs were broken) grasped the man around his legs and called in Spanish, “Hail Mary most pure, for God’s sake, save my life!” I begged with the man to spare him. The man looked at me and put his hand on his pistol, so I passed on. Just as I did, he blew out the boy’s brains.
Santa Anna slipped away during the battle but was spotted among the captured soldiers in a regular uniform when his soldiers started saluting him. He was brought before Houston where most soldiers wanted him hung. Houston spared his life knowing he was more useful alive. He could give Texas Independence Santa Anna
Diary of Clarence Wharton When he [Santa Anna] approached Houston, the general was lying wounded under a large oak tree... He threw himself on Houston's mercy, advising in a patronizing way that since Houston had conquered and captured the Napoleon of the West, he could afford to be merciful. To this Houston replied that Santa Anna had not shown any mercy at the Alamo or Goliad. He sought to justify himself by the refusal of the defenders of the Alamo to surrender, which made the storming of the place necessary, and invoked the act of congress against persons found in arms against the government as the excuse for Goliad. But General Houston replied, Fannin's men were surrendered under conditions which were violated. To this El Presidente replied in much warmth that if this were so, Urrea had deceived him, that this was the first he had heard of a conditional surrender, that he would look into it, and if found true, the most awful punishment would be meted out to Urrea. The ad interim government of Texas now assumed negotiations with the captive president, and pending them, he sent a dispatch to his Generals to retire to Victoria, advising: "I have agreed with General Houston for an armistice until matters can be so regulated that the war will cease forever."
The General-in-Chief of the Army of Operations of the Mexican Republic, to the inhabitants of Texas: Citizens! The causes which have conducted to this frontier a part of the Mexican Army are not unknown to you, a parcel of adventurers, maliciously protected by some inhabitants of a neighboring republic dared to invade our territory, with the intention of dividing amongst themselves the fertile lands that are contained in spacious Texas. It became necessary to check such enormous daring; and in consequence, some punishments have already taken place in San Patricio and this city. (San Antonio de Bexar)…