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William G. Huitt Educational Psychology Interactive William G. Huitt Educational Psychology Interactive Last rev: June 2012

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Questions to ask when analyzing examples What was the TARGET behavior? What behavior was INCREASED or DECREASED? Was the behavior INCREASED or DECREASED? (Can eliminate two possible methods used.) What was the consequence used? Questions to ask when analyzing examples What was the TARGET behavior? What behavior was INCREASED or DECREASED? Was the behavior INCREASED or DECREASED? (Can eliminate two possible methods used.) What was the consequence used? Was it ADDED or SUBTRACTED? (Will eliminate another possible method used.) Operant Conditioning

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Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped-out on every Friday evening during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older children snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out since. Operant Conditioning What was the TARGET behavior? Is this an example of operant conditioning? Why or why not?

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Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped-out on every Friday evening during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older children snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out since. Operant Conditioning Was the behavior INCREASED or DECREASED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Response Cost Subtract Negative Reinforcement Add Punishment

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Subtract Response Cost Add Punishment

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Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped-out on every Friday evening during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older children snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out since. Operant Conditioning What was the consequence used? Was it ADDED or SUBTRACTED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Subtract Response Cost Add Punishment

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Punishment

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Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. Madge raised her hand 3 times during the first class, 4 times in the second, and 5 times during the last class. Operant Conditioning What was the TARGET behavior? Is this an example of operant conditioning? Why or why not?

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Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. Madge raised her hand 3 times during the first class, 4 times in the second, and 5 times during the last class. Operant Conditioning Was the behavior INCREASED or DECREASED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Response Cost Subtract Negative Reinforcement Add Punishment

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Negative Reinforcement

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Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. Madge raised her hand 3 times during the first class, 4 times in the second, and 5 times during the last class. Operant Conditioning What was the consequence? Was it ADDED or SUBTRACTED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Negative Reinforcement

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement

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Greg is being reinforced using a token system. When he follows directions, he earns a point. When he misbehaves or does not follow a request, he loses points. At the end of each day, he can “buy” free time, TV privileges, etc. with his points. Greg used to call his mom names. Since he has been on the point system, his name calling has been reduced to almost zero. Operant Conditioning What is the TARGET behavior? Was the behavior INCREASED or DECREASED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Response Cost Subtract Negative Reinforcement Add Punishment

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Subtract Response Cost Add Punishment

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Greg is being reinforced using a token system. When he follows directions, he earns a point. At the end of each day, he can “buy” free time, TV privileges, etc. with his points. When he misbehaves or does not follow a request, he loses points. Greg used to call his mom names. Since he has been on the point system, his name calling has been reduced to almost zero. Operant Conditioning What was the consequence? Was it ADDED or SUBTRACTED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Subtract Response Cost Add Punishment

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Subtract Response Cost

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John does not go to the dentist every 6-months for his checkup. When he finally went, the teeth cleaning was so painful that his mouth hurt for several days. After the second time he did this, he now has his teeth cleaned every 6 months. Operant Conditioning What is the TARGET behavior? Was the behavior INCREASED or DECREASED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Response Cost Subtract Negative Reinforcement Add Punishment

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Negative Reinforcement

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John does not go to the dentist every 6-months for his checkup. When he finally went, the teeth cleaning was so painful that his mouth hurt for several days. After the second time he did this, he now has his teeth cleaned every 6 months. Operant Conditioning What was the consequence? Was it ADDED or SUBTRACTED?

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Negative Reinforcement

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Subtract Negative Reinforcement

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Operant Conditioning Outcomes of Conditioning Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Stimulus Positive/ pleasant Negative/ Aversive Add Positive Reinforcement Subtract Response Cost Subtract Negative Reinforcement Add Punishment

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Operant Conditioning To learn about using schedules when deciding how to apply operant conditioning

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