Presentation on theme: "Operant Conditioning I liked to thank W. Huitt for this wonderful presentation. The following presentation covers the operant condition. –The learning."— Presentation transcript:
Operant Conditioning I liked to thank W. Huitt for this wonderful presentation. The following presentation covers the operant condition. –The learning of behavior from a particular method. –The significance is that your clients/patients have learned some of their maladaptvie behaviors in this way. –Likewise they can learn new behaviors in this manner.
Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning investigates the influence of consequences on subsequent behavior. Operant conditioning investigates the learning of voluntary responses. It was the dominant school in American psychology from the 1930s through the 1950s.
Operant Conditioning Where classical conditioning illustrates S-->R learning, operant conditioning is often viewed as R-->S learning It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again.
Operant Conditioning The three-term model of operant conditioning (S--> R -->S) incorporates the concept that responses cannot occur without an environmental event (e.g., an antecedent stimulus) preceding it. While the antecedent stimulus in operant conditioning does not ELICIT or CAUSE the response (as it does in classical conditioning), it can influence its occurance.
Operant Conditioning When the antecedent does influence the likelihood of a response occurring, it is technically called a discriminative stimulus. It is the stimulus that follows a voluntary response (i.e., the response's consequence) that changes the probability of whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again.
Operant Conditioning There are two types of consequences: – positive (sometimes called pleasant) – negative (sometimes called aversive)
Operant Conditioning Two actions can be taken with these stimuli: – they can be ADDED to the learner’s environment. – they can be SUBRACTED from the learner’s environment. If adding or subtracting the stimulus results in a change in the probability that the response will occur again, the stimulus is considered a CONSEQUENCE. Otherwise the stimulus is considered a NEUTRAL stimulus.
Operant Conditioning There are 4 major techniques or methods used in operant conditioning. They result from combining: – the two major purposes of operant conditioning (increasing or decreasing the probability that a specific behavior will occur in the future), – the types of stimuli used (positive/pleasant or negative/aversive), and – the action taken (adding or removing the stimulus).
Schedules of consequences Stimuli are presented in the environment according to a schedule of which there are two basic categories: Continuous Intermittent
Schedules of consequences Continuous reinforcement simply means that the behavior is followed by a consequence each time it occurs. Excellent for getting a new behavior started. Behavior stops quickly when reinforcement stops. Is the schedule of choice for punishment and response cost.
Schedules of consequences Intermittent schedules are based either on the passage of time OR number of correct responses
Schedules of consequences The consequence can be delivered based on a fixed amount of time or number of correct responses OR a slightly different amount of time or number of responses that vary around a particular number
Schedules of consequences This results in an four classes of intermittent schedules. Fixed Interval The first correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced (i.e., a consequence is delivered). The time period required is always the same. Example: Spelling test every Friday.
Schedules of consequences Variable Interval The first correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced (i.e., a consequence is delivered). After the reinforcement, a new time period (shorter or longer) is set with the average equaling a specific number over a sum total of trials. Example: Pop quiz
Schedules of consequences Fixed Ratio A reinforcer is given after a specified number of correct responses. This schedule is best for learning a new behavior. The number of correct responses required for reinforcement remains the same. Example: Ten math problems for homework
Schedules of consequences Variable Ratio A reinforcer is given after a set number of correct responses. After reinforcement the number of correct responses necessary for reinforcement changes. This schedule is best for maintaining behavior. Example: A student raises his hand to be called on.
Premack Principle The Premack Principle, often called "grandma's rule," states that a high-frequency activity can be used to reinforce low-frequency behavior. Access to the preferred activity is contingent on completing the low-frequency, non-preferred behavior.
Premack Principle The high frequency behavior to use as a reinforcer can be determined by: 1. Asking students what they would like to do. 2. Observing students during free time. 3. Knowledge of interests of a particular age group.
Behavioral Principles Premack Principle- pair HIGH FREQEUNCY response with a low frequency response Token Economy - useful in teaching new behaviors Shaping - reinforcing successive approximations Modeling - as a healer you are already unconsciously involved. Useful in teaching complex behaviors, Biofeedback - an extension of operant conditioning Generalization - when a conditioned response is elicit by stimuli that is similar to a conditioned stimuli (e.g.belI)
Rules In Analyzing Examples The following questions can help in determining whether operant conditioning has occurred. a. What behavior in the example was increased or decreased? b. Was the behavior – increased (if yes, the process has the be either positive or negative reinforcement), OR – decreased (if the behavior was decreased the process is either response cost or punishment).
Rules In Analyzing Examples The following questions can help in determining whether operant conditioning has occurred. c. What was the consequence / stimulus that followed the behavior in the example? d. Was the consequence (stimulus) added or removed? – If added, the process was either positive reinforcement or punishment. – If it was subtracted, the process was either negative reinforcement or response cost.
Analyzing An Example Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped- out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks. a. What behavior was changed? Camping out
Analyzing An Example Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped- out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks. b. Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? Weakened (Behavior decreased) Eliminate positive and negative reinforcement
Analyzing An Example Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped- out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks. Having water thrown on him. c. What was the consequence? d. Was the behavior consequence added or subtracted? Added
Analyzing An Example Billy likes to campout in the backyard. He camped- out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks. Since a consequence was ADDED and the behavior was WEAKENED (REDUCED), the process was PUNISHMENT.
1. A rat is placed in a cage and immediately receives a mild electrical shock on its feet. The shock is a negative condition for the rat. The rat presses a bar and the shock stops. The rat receives another shock, presses the bar again, and again the shock stops. The rat’s behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the consequence of the stopping of the shock.
Analyzing An Example Additional examples are provided in the web materials. An excellent web-based presentation on positive reinforcement is provided at: http://server.bmod.athabascau.ca/html/prtut/reinpair.htm
Behavioral Conditioning of the Immune System >“Strong mind the body never sick!” >ls this advanced use of behavioral principles? Behavioral Medicine research has demonstrated in a number of studies that the brain modulates the immune system and in turn the immune system modulates the brain. >This retains a sense of balance known as _______? >How do you think the brain and immune system communicate?
Behavioral Conditioning of the Immune System > This because there is two aspects of the immune system: 1. innate response and 2. learned or adaptive > The learned or adaptive aspect of the system is related to lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are more specific antigen oriented. Lymphocytes are related to cytokines and antibody mediated functions. > Lymphocytes are not stationary. > Physical activity and respiratory and lymph nodes.
Behavioral Conditioning of the Immune System > They used a novel tasting solution (CS) and paired it with an illness inducing drug (UCS). > The illness inducing drug (UCS) elicits the immune defense system into action (UCR). After repeated pairing, the tasting solution (CS) can begin to elicit the defense system (UCR). > WHY? IS IT THE STRESS?
Behavioral Conditioning of the Immune System > This is best witnessed via the behaviorally conditioned immunomodulation. A natural immune system response (UCR) is paired repeatedly with a neutral stimuli (CS). > Then, the neutral stimuli (CS) when introduced can also elicit a immune system response (UCR). > Therefore, we can learn to stimulate the immune system and rally the defenses. > But, we need learn to make indirect influences into direct influences. > This is due to the threshold concept of systems.
Behavioral Conditioning of the Immune System > This is not surprising since we have demonstrated how the neuroendocrine system and autonomic nervous system can be influenced. > This has been done via studies with meditation/relaxation response and treating anxiety disorders. > Ader and Cohen (1975) worked on studies done in the first half of the 20th century by the Soviets.