Presentation on theme: "The Renaissance. “First Renaissance” (12th century) Revival of Greek philosophy. Movement produced by –increasing sophistication of studies in law, due."— Presentation transcript:
“First Renaissance” (12th century) Revival of Greek philosophy. Movement produced by –increasing sophistication of studies in law, due possibly to the growth of commerce… law schools; scholarly and teaching techniques developed –contact between Latin Christians and Muslims (also Jews and Greek Orthodox Christians). Contact was often violent, but incidentally Christians developed favorable impression of medicine and material culture of the Muslims
–universities in some larger towns (e.g., Bologna, Paris, Oxford) not teaching institutions –assoc. of masters, each ran his own school, income from student fees. The “university” approved new masters, set curriculum to attract students (income), set rents, etc. –brought back the works of Aristotle…. Not entirely true that his works were accepted by the Church.. At first the Church opposed this. Student demand prevailed!
What started the Renaissance off? 5 events sometimes cited as “causes” (hard to tell cause/effect, of course) –invention of gunpowder and its use in warfare (15th century) helped to outmode the feudal system and lay basis for democratization of society by weakening bonds of personal fealty. Strengthening of national (not feudal) units broadened intellectual horizons. –Invention of printing press (1440) made possible mass production of books –Fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453) marked end of Byzantine Empire and dissipation of its culture to the west (e.g., Greek scholars escaped from Constantinople)
What started the Renaissance off? (cont.) Discovery of America (1492) –not a mere whim of Columbus. Concern for business and trade was beginning to surpass interest in the soul and theological dogma. Columbus was looking for trade routes to the far east. –Social status no longer seen as derived from God (“divine right”); now due to possession of wealth. Prepared way for promotion of science as soon as its commercial usefulness was demonstrated. Copernican theory (1543) –robbed man of definite celestial site for heaven and depreciated the importance of his own soul as it multiplied the possibility of many other souls on other planets. Man now had unimportant, peripheral position on one of many planets.
What started the Renaissance off? (cont.) Could add other events, e.g. Protestant Reformation (Luther’s 95 theses in 1517)
The 15 th -16 th Centuries World’s first mental hospital (Valencia, Spain) – 1410 Invention of printing press (1450) Papal edict to eliminate witchcraft… starting the Inquisition (1484) “Discovery” of New World (1492) Protestant Reformation (Luther’s 95 theses) – 1517 Dissection of a human body (Andreas Vesalius, 1537) amd start of study of anatomy Placement of sun at center of soolar system (Copernicus) – ; Kepler – ) The plays of Shakespeare ( )
The 17th century Emergence of modern science said to have occurred in 17th century –1593 Galileo invents thermometer –1600 Gilbert’s treatise on magnetism--1st great scientific work to be published in England –1609Kepler’s laws of planetary motion »planets have elliptical orbits »planets move faster when nearer the sun »(time of revolution of sun) 2 inversely related to (distance from sun) 3 –1609Galileo’s discovery of Jupiter’s moons –1628Harvey’s discovery of circulation of blood
The 17th century (cont) –1643Toricelli invents barometer –1654vonGuericke’s demonstration of atmospheric pressure (Magdeburg hemisphere) –1660Boyle’s laws of gasses –1660 Royal Society (England) founded for discussion and publication of scientific communications –1666French Academy of Sciences founded –1672Newton’s first communications on white light as mixture of colored lights –Discoveries of sunspots, Jupiter’s moons, irregular moon topography – Galileo ( ) –Development of calculus (Newton, ; Leibnitz, )
The 17th century (cont) –1674Leeuwenhoek uses microscope to discover bacteria and spermatozoa –1687Newton publishes Principia, which includes principle of universal gravitation Note: the 18th century was not as productive. As one historian put it, after Newton the world got, not as might have been expected, “a great burst of discoveries” but a “long history of slightly stunned assimilation.” The new habits of thought were taking root. Note: The ideal of modern science was fixed by the physics of the 17th century. When it is argued in the 20th century that psychology should strive to be scientific, and that, to be scientific, it should become mathematical and deductive, the polemicists seek sanction in the history of physics.
Physical scientists led the challenge to Church authority Galileo Galilei ( ) –Reliance on observation notion of primary and secondary qualities (physical and psychological properties) of objects, statements about impossibility of science of unobservable mental events Isaac Newton ( ) –Can best know God by careful observation of nature. –While God created everything, He no longer takes an active interest Material world governed only by natural laws. No teleology…. Events aren’t purposive; rather, they are caused by antecedent events. Natural laws are perfect, but our understanding is imperfect
Francis Bacon ( ) –‘Radical Empiricism”: Knowledge comes from observations of nature – not from religious faith, reason, authority, theory, mathematics, belief, or commonly accepted opinion. Later, this approach would be called Positivism. –Inductive science – generalizations/theory can be developed from observations, but his radical inductive approach was essentially atheoretical… much like Skinner in 20 th century. –Education depends on providing many different experiences Rene Descartes ( ) –Revolutionary mathematician Invention of Cartesian coordinates to analyze space/motion Invented analytical geometry
Rene Descartes (cont) –Attempted to replace the religious/philosophical scholasticism of Middle Ages that was based on rhetoric and religious tests Applied method of mathematical deduction to all reality –At end of Middle Ages, scholars had rediscovered the idea that a mathematical derivation of a specific fact from known general principles constitutes a proof of the specific fact –What principle is so fundamental, do free of doubt, that it can serve as starting point to mathematically prove all reality? I think, therefore I am (cogito ergo sum)
Rene Descartes (cont) –Mind-body dualism Mind and body are separate. Changes in one don’t affect the other (e.g., if you cut off a foot, your mental abilities aren’t changed) –Mind: ideas and mental phenomena are innate and of divine origin »2 basic functions of mind: »The will: directs action and makes free choices »(Note: “free choice” was a necessary part of philosophies that could survive in Christian environment (No free choice = no sin) »Understanding –Body: Machine-like »D was intrigued by automated mannequins in amusement parks (ran via water pressure) and thought body must work similarly. »Behavior built on reflexes caused by fluids in body (neurons had been discovered but how they worked was not known. Descartes suggested that some light fluid or wind (“animal spirits”) passed through them. –Mechanistic view of behavior not congenial to the Church »So Descartes threw in some mentalism, arguing that mind and body interact through the pineal gland.
Rene Descartes (cont) Behavior built on reflexes caused by fluids in body (neurons had been discovered but how they worked was not known. Descartes suggested that some light fluid or wind (“animal spirits”) passed through them. –Mechanistic view of behavior not congenial to the Church »So Descartes threw in some mentalism, arguing that mind and body interact through the pineal gland.
Rene Descartes (cont) –Started 2 great traditions that still divide psychology Some emphasize how behavior derives from non-material qualities of the sould and mind Some emphasize how events in the physical world produce later behavior