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Scientific Revolution Chapter 22 Section 1. Ancient & Medieval Science Aristotle’s Geocentric Theory – earth was center of the universe –Sun, moon, planets.

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific Revolution Chapter 22 Section 1. Ancient & Medieval Science Aristotle’s Geocentric Theory – earth was center of the universe –Sun, moon, planets."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scientific Revolution Chapter 22 Section 1

2 Ancient & Medieval Science Aristotle’s Geocentric Theory – earth was center of the universe –Sun, moon, planets moved around earth in circular paths Greek astronomer Ptolemy supported the geocentric theory Medieval Christianity taught that God had placed earth in center of the universe

3 Scientific Revolution = new way of thinking about natural world Careful observation, questioning accepted beliefs

4 Causes of the Scientific Revolution Middle Ages  establishment of universities Renaissance  encouraged scientific progress Reformation  led people to question, printing press Exploration  need for navigational technologies

5 Nicolaus Copernicus ( ) Polish cleric & astronomer Heliocentric Theory: sun was center of universe Feared persecution, so did not publish findings until his death Wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies

6 Tycho Brahe ( ) Danish astronomer Built sophisticated observatory Collected numerous data to support heliocentric theory Star catalogue

7 Johannes Kepler ( ) Brahe’s assistant Mathematical laws governed planetary motion Elliptical orbits around sun, not circles

8 Galileo Galilei ( ) Italian scientist Built own telescope Discovered Jupiter’s four moons, Saturn’s rings, sun spots, rough surface of moon –Published Starry Messenger Summoned to stand trial before the Inquisition

9 Scientific Method: logical procedure for gathering & testing ideas Question, hypothesis, experiment, observe, record data, conclude Francis Bacon - English statesman & writer - Empiricism (experimental method)  experiment & then draw conclusions - Generate practical knowledge to improve people’s lives

10 Scientific Method René Descartes - Developed analytical geometry - Doubt until proven by reason - Mind and matter  “I think, therefore I am” - Observation, experimentation, general mathematical laws led to understanding of world

11 Isaac Newton ( ) Law of universal gravitation  every body in universe attracts every other body Mathematical relationships  degree of attraction depends on mass & distance Published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1687 Universe was giant clock; God was clockmaker

12 Scientific Instruments Zacharias Janssen  first microscope Anton van Leeuwenhoek  used microscope to discover bacteria & red blood cells Gabriel Fahrenheit & Anders Celsius  thermometers for temperature Leeuwenhoek & his microscope

13 Advances in Medicine Andreas Vesalius  studied anatomy & muscle contraction William Harvey  described circulatory system & heart Edward Jenner  introduced smallpox vaccine

14 Discoveries in Chemistry Robert Boyle  founder of modern Chemistry - The Sceptical Chemist (1661) - challenged Aristotle’s ideas of four elements - Boyle’s law  explains how volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other

15 Results of the Scientific Revolution Rise of new social group  international scientific community Introduced new knowledge about nature & revolutionary way of obtaining such knowledge Scientific point of view begins to dominate European thought, people of 1700’s spoke of their changing times as an “Age of Enlightenment.”


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