UNIT III THE CLAUSE COMPLEX TAXIS & LOGICO_SEMANTIC RELATIONS.

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UNIT III THE CLAUSE COMPLEX TAXIS & LOGICO_SEMANTIC RELATIONS

Class plan  Reviewing taxis (parataxis & hypotaxis)  Introducing logico-semantic types (expansion)  Introducing logico-semantic types (projection)

The rank-scale reviewed We need to review the rank scale to accommodate the clause complex: Clause/clause-complex Group/phrase Word Morpheme

The rank-scale reviewed The clause complex is at the same rank as the clause. This means the clause complex is not made up of clauses, but is rather a clause that is extended by the addition of further clauses (by iteration). The clause is a multivariate structure (a structure made up of different kinds of elements) The clause complex is a univariate (serial) structure, where the same element is repeated again and again by iterarion.

The clause complex as a univariate/ iterative structure -He resigned his position in the company. -He resigned his position in the company || when he became 30. -He resigned his position in the company || when he became 30 || as he believed in the need for renewal. -He resigned his position in the company || when he became 30 || as he believed || he should make room for younger people || to ensure renewal. -He resigned his position in the company || when he became 30 || as he believed || he should make room for younger people || to ensure renewal in the company || and he decided || he would enjoy some rest and the company of his family || or he was also a bit tired || and ….

The clause complex - definition One or more clauses linked by tactic and logico-semantic relations. One or more figures (configuration of process, participants and circumstances) linked by tactic or logico-semantic relations

The clause complex – systems involved Taxis: parataxis & hypotaxis Logico-semantic-relations: expansion and projection

Taxis System that determines the status of the clauses in the clause complex. Parataxis: Clauses have an equal status (= coordinated or juxtaposed clauses -1, 2, 3) Hypotaxis: clauses have a different status (main clause and dependent clause - α β)

Parataxis and Hypotaxis illustrated 1 She graduated from high school 2 and then (she) undertook a trip through the country. (parataxis) β When she graduated from high school, α she undertook a trip through the country. (hypotaxis)

Practice: Parataxis and Hypotaxis identified (i) Sam bought the tickets and Sue parked the car. (ii) Sam bought the tickets while Sue parked the car. (iii) Highwalking is largely safe, but there are risks. (iv) There are risks in highwalking and we have to educate people about these risks. (v)We have to educate people about the risks in highwalking, if we are going to improve safety. (vi) A boy saved the life of his siblings yesterday, when fire broke out at their homes. (vii) He is the greatest artist I’ve ever known; his art is indeed unsurpassed.

Practice: Parataxis and Hypotaxis identified (i) 1 Sam bought the tickets || 2 and Sue parked the car. (ii) αSam bought the tickets || β while Sue parked the car. (iii) 1 Highwalking is largely safe, || 2 but there are risks. (iv) 1 There are risks in highwalking || 2 and we have to educate people about these risks. (v) α We have to educate people about the risks in highwalking, || β if we are set on improving safety. (vi) α A boy saved the life of his siblings yesterday, || β when fire broke out at their homes. (vii) 1 He is the greatest artist [[ I’ve ever known]]; || 2 his art is indeed unsurpassed.

Practice: Parataxis and Hypotaxis identified (viii) The match was cancelled, because it started to rain. (ix) I have bought some beautiful tapestries; you will surely like them. (x) As it started to rain, the match was cancelled. (xi) There was no moon that night and, as a result, they took the wrong turning. (xii) He has a summer job with a travel agency, guiding parties of tourists. (xiii) They advised me to emigrate, which is the last thing I’d do. (xiv) He always stays at home during the weekend; he never ever goes out.

Practice: Parataxis and Hypotaxis identified (viii) αThe match was cancelled, || β because it started to rain. (ix) 1 I have bought some beautiful tapestries; || 2 you will surely like them. (x) β As it started to rain, || α the match was cancelled. (xi) 1 There was no moon that night || 2 and, as a result, they took the wrong turning. (xii) α He has a summer job with a travel agency, || β guiding parties of tourists. (xiii) α They advised me to emigrate, || β which is the last thing [[I’d do]]. (xiv) 1 He always stays at home during the weekend; || 2 he never ever goes out.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations TAXIS PARATAXIS HYPOTAXIS combines with LOGICO_SEMANTIC RELATIONS of two types: EXPANSION PROJECTION

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations introduced He is really well-to-do; he has lots of money. He has lots of friends; he has many friends in his neighbourhood, at school and in his job. He graduated and he immediately applied for a job. He had graduated with honours, but it was difficult to get jobs then. Once he graduated, he applied for a job. He thought Jane was kind. He thought “Jane is kind”. He answered the door was locked. “The door is locked”, he answered.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations introduced He is really well-to-do; || he has lots of money. He has lots of friends; || he has many friends in his neighbourhood, at school and in his job. He graduated || and he immediately applied for a job. Once he graduated, || he applied for a job. He thought || Jane was kind. He thought ||“Jane is kind”. He said || that the door was locked. “The door is locked”, || he said.

Logico-semantic relations LOGICO_SEMANTIC RELATIONS are of two kinds and each is sub-classified in subtypes: EXPANSION (elaboration, extension, enhancement) PROJECTION (verbal, mental: quoting, reporting)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Elaboration EXPANSION ELABORATION (that is to say relationship) Specification This stew is awful; it’s too salty This test is difficult; it’s too long and has several questions we have not discussed in class. He was tired; he had worked all day long and had not taken any nap. The teacher, who was by then very tired of John’s unruly behavior, asked him to leave the room. Tom has refused to help us, which shows that he is still angry.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Elaboration ELABORATION (that is to say relationship) Specification This stew is awful; || it’s too salty (parataxis) This test is difficult; || it’s too long and has several questions we have not discussed in class. (parataxis) He was tired; || he had worked all day long and had not taken any nap. (parataxis) The teacher, >, asked him to leave the room. (hypotaxis) Tom has refused to help us, || which shows that he is still angry. (hypotaxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Elaboration ELABORATION RESTATEMENT This stew is awful; it’s completely off. This test is difficult; it’s really complicated. He was tired; he was really exhausted.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Elaboration ELABORATION RESTATEMENT This stew is awful; || it’s completely off. (parataxis) This test is difficult; || it’s really complicated. (parataxis) He was tired; || he was really exhausted. (parataxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Elaboration ELABORATION EXEMPLIFICATION I’ve played in several orchestras; I’ve played in the Darwin Symphony and the Brisbane Sinfonia. He holds several degrees by renowned institutions; he holds a BA degree by the University of Northern Illinois, for example, and then a MA degree by the University of Pensylvania and a PhD by the University of California.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Elaboration ELABORATION EXEMPLIFICATION I’ve played in several orchestras; || I’ve played in the Darwin Symphony and the Brisbane Sinfonia. (parataxis) He holds several degrees by renowned institutions; || he holds a BA degree by the University of Northern Illinois, for example, and then a MA degree by the University of Pensylvania and a PhD by the University of California. (parataxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Elaboration ELABORATION generally combines with parataxis, except for a few cases in which elaboration, usually specification, combines with hypotaxis (non- restrictive/non-defining relative clauses). Hypotactic clauses are FINITE. The teacher, >, asked him to leave the room. (hypotaxis) Tom has refused to help us, || which shows that he is still angry. (hypotaxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Extension EXTENSION (and, but, or relationships) I play a French horn and my sister plays oboe. He left that day and never came back. He is not only very good at maths, language and history but also stands out in sports. I love French horns but I am less apt with saxophones. He is very friendly with strangers but very irritable at home. I could practice this evening or I could lazily watch TV.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Extension EXTENSION (and, but, or relationships) I play a French horn || and my sister plays oboe. (parataxis) He left that day || and never came back. (parataxis) He is not only very good at maths, language and history || but also stands out in sports. (parataxis) I love French horns || but I am less apt with saxophones. (parataxis) He is very friendly with strangers || but very irritable at home. (parataxis) I could practice this evening || or I could lazily watch TV. (parataxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Extension EXTENSION (and, but, or relationships) Besides doing embroidery and playing tennis, she sings in a choir. I play a French horn whereas/while my sister plays oboe. I will watch TV this evening instead of practicing. I will watch TV this evening rather than practice for the exam. She left, slamming the door behind her.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Extension EXTENSION (and, but, or relationships) Besides doing embroidery and playing tennis, || she sings in a choir. (hypotaxis) I play a French horn || whereas/while my sister plays oboe. (hypotaxis) I will watch TV this evening || instead of studying for the exam. (hypotaxis) I will watch TV this evening || rather than practice for the exam. (hypotaxis). He left, || slamming the door behind her.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Extension EXTENSION combines both with parataxis (and, but, or, so, for) and hypotaxis (instead of, rather than, besides, whereas/while) though it is more frequent with the former one. Hypotactic clauses in this case can be Finite or NON-Finite.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Temporal I went to the rehearsal after lecturing all day. Call me whenever you can. Cook the meat until it is tender. She made an important decision once she had spoken to him. I lectured all day and then went to the rehearsal.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Temporal I went to the rehearsal || after lecturing all day. (hypotaxis) Call me || whenever you can. (hypotaxis) Cook the meat || until it is tender. (hypotaxis) She made an important decision || once she had spoken to him. (hypotaxis) I lectured all day || and then went to the rehearsal. (parataxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Conditional You won’t have time to practice if you teach day and night. I will go to the party as long as/provided that he comes along. Practise regularly; otherwise/or else you won’t make as much progress as you want to.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Conditional You won’t have time to practice || if you teach day and night. (hypotaxis) I will go to the party || as long as/provided that he comes along. (hypotaxis) Practise regularly; || otherwise/or else you won’t make as much progress as you want to. (parataxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Causal (reason/purpose) We didn’t have the rehearsal on Monday because it was a public holiday. He was very tired as he had worked all day long. He had worked all day long, so he was very tired. Since he was only 16, his mother did not allow him to go out alone. She studied hard in order that/so that her parents would be proud of her. She studied hard to/in order to/so as to get ahead in life.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Causal (reason/purpose) We didn’t have the rehearsal on Monday because it was a public holiday. (hypotaxis – reason) He was very tired as he had worked all day long. (hypotaxis – reason) He had worked all day long, so he was very tired. (parataxis – reason) Since he was only 16, his mother did not allow him to go out alone. (hypotaxis – reason) She studied hard in order that/so that her parents would be proud of her. (hypotaxis – purpose) She studied hard to/in order to/so as to get ahead in life. (hypotaxis – purpose)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Concessive We had rehearsal on Monday although/even though it was a public holiday. In spite of being only 10 years old, he is very considerate and thoughtful. He is only 10 years old; yet/still he is very considerate and thoughtful.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT Concessive We had rehearsal on Monday || although/even though it was a public holiday. (hypotaxis) In spite of being only 10 years old, || he is very considerate and thoughtful. (hypotaxis) He is only 10 years old; || yet/still he is very considerate and thoughtful. (parataxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement Spatial She was welcome wherever we went. They stopped wherever night fell. Manner I’m developing a more pleasing sound by changing my embouchoure. He is getting ahead in life (by) working hard.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement Spatial She was welcome || wherever we went. (hypotaxis) They stopped || where(ver) night fell. (hypotaxis) Manner I’m developing a more pleasing sound || by changing my embouchoure. (hypotaxis) He is getting ahead in life || (by) working hard. (hypotaxis)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Expansion/Enhancement ENHANCEMENT usually combines with hypotaxis, though there are some paractactic conjunctions which express enhancement (“so”, “for” and “and” followed by “then”/”yet”/”still”)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Projection PROJECTION can be of two kinds VERBAL PROJECTION (projected clause = IDEA) MENTAL PROJECTION (projected clause = LOCUTION) ADDITIONALLY it can be of the QUOTING type REPORTING type

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: Projection PROJECTION VERBAL (LOCUTION) Proposition (Statement or Question) He said “I will never surrender”. He said that he would never surrender He asked whether/if they would surrender. Proposal (Command) He said/ordered “Go to the park”. He told us/commanded us/ordered us to go to the park.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: projection PROJECTION VERBAL (LOCUTION) Proposition (Statement or question) He said || “I will never surrender”. (quote/parataxis) He said || that he would never surrender (report/hypotaxis) He asked || whether/if they would surrender. (report/hypotaxis) Proposal (Command) He said/ordered ||“Go to the park”. (quote) He told us/commanded us/ordered us || to go to the park. (report)

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: projection MENTAL (IDEA) Proposition He thought ‘What a good idea!’ He thought that was a good idea. He thought “When will she leave?” Proposal He thought to himself ‘Keep quiet!’ He thought that he should keep quiet. He wanted his friends to help.

Taxis & Logico-semantic relations: projection MENTAL (IDEA) Proposition He thought ||‘What a good idea!’ (quote/parataxis) He thought || that was a good idea. (report/hypotaxis) He thought || “When will she leave?” (quote/parataxis) Proposal He thought to himself || ‘Keep quiet!’ (quote/parataxis) He thought || that he should keep quiet. (report/hypotaxis) He wanted || his friends to help. (report/hypotaxis)

Identifying quote or report (i) “I am a professional,” he answered angrily. (ii) He said that he liked the place. (iii) And I think to myself ‘What a wonderful world’. (iv) ‘I will marry him,’ she thought. (v) She claimed that she had never seen the man before. (vi) “I am the person you are looking for,” he confessed. (vii) “Don’t you ever speak to me like that again, ” she yelled. (viii) “But isn’t he the manager?” she asked. (ix) She wanted to know if he was comfortable in his room. (x) She asked whether he would stay one more day.

Identifying quote or report A I “1 “I am a professional,” || II 2 he answered angrily. B I α He said || II β that he liked the place. C I 1And I think to myself || II ‘2 ‘What a wonderful world’. D I ‘1 ‘I will marry him,’ || II 2 she thought. E I α She claimed || II β that she had never seen the man before.

Identifying quote or report F I “ 1“I am the person you are looking for,” || II 2 he confessed. G I “1 “Don’t you ever speak to me like that again, ” || II 2 she yelled. H I “ 1 “But isn’t he the manager?” || II 2 she asked. She wanted to know if he was comfortable in his room. She asked whether he would stay one more day.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes and LS relationsions The match was cancelled, because it started to rain. I have bought some beautiful tapestries and I think you will like them. As it started to rain, the match was cancelled. There was no moon that night and, as a result, they took the wrong turning. He has a summer job with a travel agency, guiding parties of tourists. They advised me to emigrate, which is the last thing I’d do.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes She got married and moved to New York. She moved to New York and got married. It’s like going out with a child; she stops dead and refuses to go on. You will have to make up a better excuse: no-one will believe that.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes Alcoholic drinks are sold out to adults, i.e. they are sold to people over 18. Several countries have signed the pact; specifically all the EC countries have done so. There are lots of things you might do; for example, you might learn to play the piano. Take extra care when driving at night. Though feeling unwell, she made an extra effort to appear cheerful.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes Without having read the book, I do not wish to give an opinion. The picture is not an original; in other words, it’s a forgery. We became tourists; or rather, we became tramps. Look the two ways before crossing the road. We need someone to fix this machine; that is to say, we need a mechanic. After applying one coat of paint, leave it to dry.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes You can’t count on the trains being punctual here; for instance, the 10:55 left at 11:15 yesterday. His new novel is a best-seller, which is what everyone expected. I was completely ignorant of women; in fact I knew none except my own sisters. I didn’t mind their questions; indeed, I was glad to be able to answer them. They decided not to go, which turned out to be a mistake. We should get through this job fairly soon; actually, there is very little left to do.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes He doesn’t like bacon and also he’s better without it. The burglar broke into the house, while they were asleep. It is a very simple device, but it’s very effective. As soon as she got into bed, the telephone rang. Stay in bed, until the rain goes away. If you believe that, you will believe anything. While I admire his tenacity, I deplore his rudeness.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes We promised you the sun would shine, which it did. They spread the cloth on the grass and then began unpacking the picnic. The crowd roared as the ball went into the net. Perhaps she thinks it sounds better, which it does really. We had to stay overnight because the car broke down. He is not eating his main meal until 11 o’clock, which is stupid. Soon after the war ended, the men returned. Fasten the sunshade securely, so that it won’t blow away.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes When you reach the station, give me a call. Jane already speaks two foreign languages, whereas/while her brother hasn’t learned any. When he saw me, he waved. He talks as though he owned the place. In order that no mistakes should be made, everyone must be informed. Since he won’t answer the phone we’d better leave a note.

Identifying paratactic or hypotactic clause complexes She promised to keep in touch, but she never phoned or wrote. When he saw me, he waved. You can add the wine to the water or you can add the water to the wine. Come round, whenever you can. Jane already speaks two foreign languages, but her brother hasn’t learned any.