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Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Quality Assurance of Engineering Education by Outcome Based Evaluation Mitsunori Makino, Dr. Eng. Committee Chair, Criteria, JABEE Professor Program Leader, Rubric-based Competency Development, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University January 29,
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Self Introduction of Mitsunori Makino Graduated from Waseda University –B.Eng. in 1987, M.Eng. in 1989, Dr. Eng. in 1992 Faculty member of Chuo University since 1992 –2004- : Professor –2008- : Leader of Rubric-based Competency Development Project, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, (www.facebook.com/ChuoCompetency) – : Vice Dean, Faculty of Science and Engineering JABEE –Chairperson of Criteria Committee, JABEE (www.jabee.org) 2
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Outline What is “outcomes-based” ? Quality assurance of higher education –Input-based vs. outcomes-based Washington Accord --- World-wide accreditation alliance of engineering education How to assess graduates’ knowledge and performance –Rubric –Rubric for achievement in a course –Rubric for achievement for …. Discussion Conclusion 3
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. What is quality assurance, especially in higher education? The maintenance of a desired level of quality in a service or product, especially by means of attention to every stage of the process of delivery or production. from Oxford Dictionary (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/quality-assurance?q=quality+assurance)http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/quality-assurance?q=quality+assurance In the higher education… The maintenance of a desired level or higher of quality in graduates by means of attention to every stage of the education system 4
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Why do we need the quality assurance in engineering education by the third party? (1/2) professionalThe 1 st step to professional 5 Accredited Program Training and Experience Practice Graduate Attributes: Indicate that program objectives are satisfied Meet Standard for Professional Competency Meet Standard for Engineering Education Observe Code of Conduct and Maintain Competence
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Why do we need the quality assurance in engineering education by the third party? (2/2) substantial equivalenceThe substantial equivalence in the world: Applied to educational programs means that two programs, while not meeting a single set of criteria, are both acceptable as preparing their respective graduates to enter formative development toward registration. 6 Training and Experience Practice Substantial Equivalence Signatory A Accredited Program Signatory B Accredited Program
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. How can we show the quality of engineering education? Contents, environment –Book of Knowledge Environment –Budget –Facilities Outcomes –Skills & competencies of graduates based on professional knowledge Project/Research output (accepted papers, patents...) Enrollment numbers in professional qualification Employment as engineer … 7 Benchmarks for what? Necessity of “educational objective” & “performance criteria”
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Educational outcomes must inevitably given, not happen Educational program is planned in advance, connected with its goal and/or objectives, about graduates’ performance and knowledge (not “what is taught” but “what is equipped”) If so, the educational program can be trusted as assured human resource development. (Graduates are expected a certain level of their knowledge and competency) 8
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Graduate Attributes & Disclosure of Three Policies of Admission, Curriculum and Diploma by MEXT Exemplified graduate attributes: 1.Knowledge and understanding i.Understanding of knowledge of multiple/different cultures ii.Understanding of knowledge of human culture, society and nature 2.Versatile skill i.Communication skill ii.Quantitative skill iii.Information literacy iv.Logical thinking v.Problem solving 3.Behaviors and intentionality i.Self-control ii.Teamwork and leadership iii.Ethics iv.Social responsibility as civil v.Ability of lifelong learning 4.Integrated learning experiences and creative thinking 9 Each university in Japan has and discloses its diploma policy regarding the attributes
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. IEA Graduate Attributes The 2 nd version was released in June 2009, modified in 2013 Graduates of engineering schools should equip both of “Engineering Knowledge” and “Graduate Attributes”. These profiles are defined for –Washington Accord (WA): Engineering education –Sydney Accord (SA): Technologist education –Dublin Accord (DA): Technician education 10
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Washington Accord Membership (as of 2013) 11
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. IEA (Engineering) Knowledge Profile 1.Natural sciences 2.Mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics, formal aspects of computer and information science 3.Engineering fundamentals 4.Engineering specialist knowledge 5.Knowledge supporting engineering design 6.Knowledge of engineering practice 7.Comprehension of the role of engineering in society and identified issues in engineering practice in the discipline 8.Engagement with selected knowledge in the research literature of the discipline 12
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. IEA Graduate Attributes Profile 1.Engineering Knowledge 2.Problem Analysis 3.Design/development of solutions 4.Investigation 5.Modern Tool Usage 6.The Engineer and Society 7.Environment and Sustainability 8.Ethics 9.Individual and Team work 10.Communication 11.Project Management and Finance 12.Life long learning 13
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Quality Assurance by JABEE Criteria 14 Criterion 1 : Learning Outcomes Performance Criteria A set of clear students’ performance, planned by program, enough to achieve the outcomes Criterion 2 ： Educational Methods Criterion 3 ： Achievement of Learning Outcomes Implementation Assurance through review and evaluation What & how high? Criterion 4 ： Educational Improvement
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Learning Outcomes in JABEE 2012 Criteria (a) An ability of multidimensional thinking with knowledge from global perspective (b) An ability of understanding of effects and impact of engineering on society and nature, and of engineers’ social responsibilities (engineering ethics) (c) Knowledge of and an ability to apply mathematics, natural sciences and information technology (d) Knowledge of the related engineering disciplines, and an ability to apply it to solve problems (e) An ability to design to respond to requirements of the society by using various sciences, technologies and information (f) Communication skills including logical writing, presentation and debating in Japanese and fundamental communication skills on the international scene. (g) An ability of independent and life-long learning (h) An ability to manage and accomplish tasks systematically under given constraints. (i) An ability to work as a team member 15
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. JABEE’s Outcomes-based Assessment Instead of structural assessment, the contents of education are assessed as outcomes. JABEE does not question the approach of the program as long as the outcomes are assured. The program shall set up and demonstrate with benchmarks the outcomes, which the program expects. The outcomes of the program are evaluated by the society in the era of information. 16
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. How to make students learn by themselves and evaluate appropriately graduates attributes? “Knowledge” profile may be assured by suitable curriculum with a certain assessment (paper exam, report, …)(almost input-based). “Ability” may be implicit and expressed as his/her action. How do we “teach” action profile? 17
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Rubric-based Competency Development (including assessment) in Chuo University 18
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Rubric: Evaluation of Performance & Level Nobody can evaluate implicit (inside)Nobody can evaluate implicit (inside). Rubrics check performance and level which he/she presented as some actions For assurance of learning outcomes, behavior characteristics is important. (happened actions is not important) Therefore, rubrics of “competencies” should be considered. 19
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. What is rubric? Rubric: a tool to evaluate level of performance Three elements: –Dimensions …performance criteria –Scales …levels of performance –Descriptors Evaluation of performance of study items Through self-check by students and evaluation by teachers, the rubric help students’ awakening. 20
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Rubric: Trends in Higher Education Especially effective for PBL Objectivity of learning outcomes and mutual understanding between students and professors Effective of course design and FD 21
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Graduate attributes also use the rubric, showing differences between engineering, technologist and technician education. 22 Range of Problem Solving (IEA) WA requires “complex problems”
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Rubric: Examples in U.S. Engineering Education ABET Webinar: Developing Rubrics WSU-EERC (Engineering Education Research Center, Washington State University) IDEALS 23
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Rubric-based Competency Development Project in Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University Kick-off: Summer, 2008 National Project “Good Practice in Higher Education” from autumn 2009 to March 2012 Goal: –Clarification of graduate attributes (competencies) of Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University –Development of systematic curriculum and teaching method of the competencies Project leader: Mitsunori Makino Leading department: Information and System Engineering (Computer Engineering) 24
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Procedure of Competency Development in Chuo Univ. 1.Definition of Educational Goal 2.Definition of competencies as graduate attributes 3.Detailed competencies with levels 4.Application to courses 5.Sharing information on good practices 25
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Seven Competencies as Graduate Attributes in ISE Department 26
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Seven Competencies as Graduate Attributes in ISE Department 27
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Seven Competencies as Graduate Attributes in ISE Department 28
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Two points for applying rubric to course assessment 1.Define the dimensions and scales which can be checked in the course. Then descriptor at each level can be described according to supposed students’ action. 2.If necessary, revise course which encourages students’ “awareness” and “innovation.” 29
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Introduction of Competency Development to Course (Software Design Team Project) 30 Clarification of competencies which can be observed at each class
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Evidence of Competencies Development (1) Self-Assessment by Students 31
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Evidence of Competencies Development (2) Assessments by Faculty Staff, Graduates and TA 32
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. From Department to Faculty FD & SD through Planning of Rubric-based Competency Development All departments in the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University have the rubrics, respectively, and apply them to some courses. The faculty includes the competencies as the graduate attributes in its both of diploma and curriculum policies. 33
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Conclusion and Future Work 34
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. For assurance of educational quality through achieving graduate attributes Competency development is becoming mandatory in higher education in Japan as well as global engineering education. Combination of the rubric-based competency development with engineering education seems positive result from our project. How do we promote the rubric-based competency development to wide area of engineering education ? –Understanding of importance –Re-organization of courses, if necessary 35
Copyright © 2014 Mitsunori Makino. All rights reserved. Thank you for your attention! It’s my honor to be involved in establishment of accreditation system for engineering education in Indonesia. I hope I will be here for further discussion in near future. 36
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