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Themes in World Regional Geography Geo100 - Fall 2003 Julie Hwang Lecture #2.

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Presentation on theme: "Themes in World Regional Geography Geo100 - Fall 2003 Julie Hwang Lecture #2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Themes in World Regional Geography Geo100 - Fall 2003 Julie Hwang Lecture #2

2 Outlines Environmental Geography Population Geography Cultural Geography Political Geography Economic Geography

3 Population and Settlement

4 World Population 6 billion humans on Earth

5 Population growth & change in the world regions Rapid growth in the developing world Stabilized in developed countries Population growth/change is caused by natural growth (by birth offset by death) Migration (by in & out-migration)

6 Demographic indicators RNI (Rate of Natural Increase) Annual growth rate for a country (#birth – #death) / total population Migration is not considered TFR (Total Fertility Rate) Average number of children borne by a statistically average woman

7 Demographic indicators % population under 15 Indicates rapid population growth Need for nutrition, health care higher in less-developed countries % population over 65 Need for social welfare services higher in more-developed countries

8 Demographic indicators Population pyramids

9 Demographic Transition Model How population growth rates change over time? Phase1: Preindustrial high birth & death rate Phase2: Transitional death rate  (<- onset of public health measure) Phase3: Transitional birth rate  (<- aware of advantages of smaller families) Phase4: Industrial low birth & death rate

10 Demographic Transition Model

11 Migration Patterns Increase in international migration due to globalized economy Move from rural to urban environments due to urbanization What contributes to migration? Push factor: civil strife, political refugee Pull factor: better economic opportunity Informational networks

12 World Urbanization Currently 46% of world’s population in cities

13 Rapid growth in the developing world Slow growth in the developed world Cities over 10 million

14 Conceptualizing the City Urban primacy Dominates economic, political, and cultural activities within the country Overurbanization urban population grows more quickly than support services such as housing, transportation, waste disposal, and water supply Squatter settlements illegal developments of makeshift housing on land neither owned nor rented by their inhabitants

15 Example of squatter settlements

16 Cultural Coherence and Diversity

17 Culture Learned, and not innate, behavior Shared, and not individual, behavior “Way of life” Dynamic rather than static Process, not a condition

18 Spectrum of cultural groups Folk culture shared by self-sufficient rural group Ethnic culture Common ancestry, race, religion, or language Popular culture Primarily urban-based, superficial relationships between people, weaker family structure World culture subset of popular culture, indeterminate nationality, mixed cultural value

19 Membership of cultural groups Common to have association with multiple cultural groups eg. Amish young people interacts with popular culture while talking their primary identity from their folk culture

20 Cultural Collision Cultural imperialism Promotes one cultural system at the expense of another (eg. European colonialism) Cultural nationalism As the reaction against cultural imperialism; defends cultural system against diluting forces; promotes national and local cultural values Cultural syncretism or hybridization Blending of forces to form a new, synergistic form of culture

21 World Languages Based on language families

22 World Religions Universalizing religions Appeal to all peoples regardless of location or culture (eg. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) Ethnic religions Identified closely with a specific ethnic, tribal, or national group (eg. Judaism, Hinduism)

23 World Religions Christianity: 2 billion – Europe, Africa, Latin America, and North America Islam: 1.2 billion – Arabian Peninsula, Some Southeast Asia Buddhism: 300-900 million – Asia; Rather mixed

24 Geopolitical framework

25 Geopolitics Describes the link between geography and political activity

26 State & Nation State political entity with territorial boundaries Nation a large group of people who share cultural elements such as language, religion, tradition, cultural identity

27 Nation-state congruence Nation-state Relatively homogenous cultural group with its own political territory Ideal political model; relatively rare (eg. Japan) Multinational state A country that contains different cultural and ethnic groups More common than nation-state (eg. US) Nation without a state Nations lacking recognized, self-governed territory (eg. Palestinians, Kurds, Basques, Catalans)

28 Example of nation without a state Not all nations or large cultural groups control their own political territories or states

29 Centrifugal & Centripetal forces Centrifugal forces Forces that weaken or divide a state eg. Quebec, Basque Centripetal forces Forces that unite or reinforce a state eg. Germany in the 1990s

30 Example of Centrifugal & Centripetal forces Cold War

31 Boundaries Ethnographic boundaries Political boundaries that follow cultural traits such as language or religion (eg. European boundaries after WWI) Geometric boundaries Drawn without regard for physical or cultural features (eg. Africa in a colonial era)

32 Example of ethnographic boundaries WWI After WWI, empires were largely replaced by nation-states.

33 Example of geometric boundaries The lack of congruence between ethnic boundaries and political borders often results in civil war

34 Colonialism & Decolonialization Colonialism Formal establishment of rule over a foreign population Decolonialization Process of a colony’s gaining(regaining) control over its territory and establishing a independent government They are fundamental forces in the shaping of the modern world system

35 The Colonial World, 1914

36 Consequences of Colonialism In general, disadvantaged because of a much-reduced resource base, but varies from place to place Continuing exchange of human networks Economic ties between certain imperial powers and their former colonies are still found

37 International & Supranational organizations International organizations links together two or more states for some specific purpose, but does not affect the sovereignty of each state (eg. UN, OPEC, NATO, ASEAN, NAFTA) Supranational organizations organization of nation-states linked together with a common goal, but which requires each to give up some sovereignty (eg. EU, Arab League)

38 Economic/Social development

39 Core-periphery model As a way of understanding increasing uneven development between more/less-developed countries Developed core achieved its wealth primarily by exploiting the periphery, either through more recent economic imperialism Dependence may be structure through the relations of exchange, production between core and periphery

40 World Economic Core Areas Economic activity is clustered around these core areas while outlying areas are underdeveloped

41 Indicators of economic development GNI the value of all final goods and services produced within a country plus net income from abroad Measures the size of economy GNI per capita (at market exchange rate) GNI divided by country’s population GNI per capita at purchasing power parity GNI adjusted for differences in prices and exchange rates Living standards with the local currency

42 GNI per capita at MER What a nation can buy outside the nation GNI per capital at PPP What a nation can buy inside the nation

43 Indicators of social development Life expectancy average length of life expected at birth for a hypothetical male or female, as based on national death statistics Under age 5 mortality measure of the number of children who die per 1,000 persons

44 Indicators of social development Adult illiteracy rates percentage of a society’s males and females who cannot read Female labor force participation percentage of a nation’s labor force that is female

45 Give insights into the social conditions such as health care, sanitation, homocide rate, prevalence of disease…

46 Sustainable development Concept on limits to development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations “Intergenerational equity”

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