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Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR"— Presentation transcript:

1. Conflicts over slavery and Compromises Slavery in Louisiana Purchase? Manifest Destiny to 1850 President James K. Polk—1845 to 1849 Oregon Territory Texas Statehood--1845 Mexican War to 1848 US acquired the Mexican Cession Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo—1848 Slavery in the Mexican Cession? Compromise of 1850 Calif. Admitted as a free state Create 2 new territories = Popular Sovereignty South: Enforce the Fugitive Slave Law North: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.

2 Gadsden Purchase Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas---build railroad in the North Organize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular Sovereignty Effects Abolitionists against it Ruined the Missouri Compromise led to violence----Bleeding Kansas Republican Party political party organized to stop the expansion of slavery

3 2. Judicial Arguments Dred Scott— slave sued for his freedom Supreme Court Decision Constitution did not apply to slaves Legalized slavery in the U.S. All compromises were unconstitutional 3. John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry Reactions North---martyr for the abolitionist cause South---no other choice but secede

4 4. Election of 1860 Lincoln wins election South Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec. of 1860 10 other Southern States would secede in 1861 Formed the CSA---Confederate States of America Why?

5 Missouri Comp

6 Texas War of Independence
Americans began moving into Texas in the 1820’s and brought their slaves with them. War fought by Texans against Mexico because they believed their rights had been violated. Won by Texans in 1836 and requests to enter the U.S. Texas War of Independence

7 Texas War of Independence
President Jackson and Van Buren refused to recognize Texas statehood because of slavery (PRINCIPLE OF WHITE LABOR). Texas became its own country with Sam Houston president, 1836 to 1845. Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas.

8 Texas War of Independence1
Texas entered as a U.S. state in 1845. Mexico vowed if Texas became part of the U.S., this would be an act of war. One cause of the war with Mexico in 1846. Texas War of Independence1

American belief that U.S. would control the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. KEY EVENTS Texas statehood Oregon territory Mexican War Mexican Cession                                                                          Picture/M.Destiny

10 KEY EVENTS Pioneers Trek West California trail Oregon trail
MANIFEST DESTINY KEY EVENTS Pioneers Trek West California trail Oregon trail Mormon’s trail Gold discovered Gold Rush                                                                          Picture/M.Destiny

11 KEY EVENTS California statehood Donner Party 40 mile desert Ragtown
MANIFEST DESTINY KEY EVENTS California statehood Donner Party 40 mile desert Ragtown Genoa                                                                          Picture/M.Destiny



14 Picture/Polk James K. Polk, Democrat President from 1845 to 1849
MANIFEST DESTINY James K. Polk, Democrat President from 1845 to 1849 Responsible for the Manifest Destiny Expansionist Acquired the Oregon Territory from Great Britain in 1846 54’, 40’ or Fight 49th Parallel became border Mexican War acquired Mexican Cession and completed U.S. control of the continent from ocean to ocean Picture/Polk

15 Treaty with Great Britain in 1846
MANIFEST DESTINY Oregon dispute The Oregon Territory Treaty with Great Britain in 1846 President Polk campaign slogan was 54,40 or fight… Compromised with British and divided the Oregon Country at the 49th parallel

16 Long Term Causes Immediate Causes Effects
Manifest Destiny California Immediate Causes Texas statehood, 1845 Mexico refusing to sell California Border dispute Effects US receives Mexican Cession Disputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil War MEXICAN WAR Mexican War

17 MEXICAN WAR Mexican War

18 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico U.S. paid Mexico $15 million

19 Map expansion

20 Election of 1848 Both the Whigs and the Democrats remained silent on the issue of slavery even though Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession.

21 Most intense debate in U.S. History
Compromise of 1850 Most intense debate in U.S. History John C. Calhoun North should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave Law South wanted California Threatened to secede from U.S. (dead horse) U.S. should have two Presidents---one from the North and one for the South Daniel Webster Secession is impractical & impossible How would we split the land? The military? Compromise at all cost Preserve the Union Henry Clay The Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise.

22 STEPHEN DOUGLAS U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois
Solve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereignty let the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not. Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850 Calif. A free state Enforce a stricter Fugitive Slave Law Popular Sovereignty stop slave trade in Washington, D.C. Picture/S.Douglas

23 Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state. Map Comp of 1850

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published Abolitionists refuse to enforce the law Underground Railroad becomes more active

Southerners threatened secession and war Believed it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law (oh, look who’s changed their tune!). 5th Amendment Supremacy Clause

26 Election of 1852

27 1852 Election Results

28 The “Know-Nothings” Form [The American Party]
Nativists. Anti-Catholics. Anti-immigrants.

Douglas really wanted to build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or North, but he had to convince the South to let him do this in the North Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery w/popular sovereignty in return for building the railroad in the North. The Little Giant in Action

30 Map Bleeding Kan BLEEDING KANSAS Kansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers (totally overblown by media – border ruffians from South). First violent outbreaks between north/south. First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856. (Led by John Brown) Attacks by free-states Attacks by pro-slavery states

31 BLEEDING KANSAS After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and “massacres.” The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party. Bleeding Kan

32 Effects of K-N Whigs were destroyed as northern ones helped form Republicans, joined Free-Soilers, or supported Nativists, and southern ones did nothing The Dems shattered in two w/northerners furious at expansion of slavery Compromise of 1850 nullified, along w/Missouri Compromise Kansas itself went pro-slavery with a corrupt Lecompton Constitution (pushed by Buchanan) even though slavery-free constitution passed in Topeka Broke the Little Giant’s heart and made him split w/Democrats due to pop. sov. failing Bleeding Charles (1856) and “the rape of a virgin territory”

33 “The Crime Against Kansas”
Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC) (Bully Brooks, who received many canes to replace his broken one)

34 Parts and Formation of the
Free Soil Party formed in the 40s (led by Van Buren) against the expansion of slavery Formed to stop the expansion of slavery Parts and Formation of the REPUBLICAN PARTY Democrats opposed the expansion of slavery (split in 1850s due to K-N Act) A Few Abolitionists National Republican which become the Whigs Know Nothing Party (against immigration)

35 The Election of 1856 Fremont lost by a bare margin, and proved that the Republicans could take the entire election w/o the South, if they all voted together (South begins to get angry and suspicious about American politics)

36 Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue
DRED SCOTT DECISION Slave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states. His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave. He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time. Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue Can a slave sue for his freedom? Is a slave property? Is slavery legal?

37 Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision
Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property. They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution. Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that : Congress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territory Missouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutional North refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Law Free states pass personal liberty laws. Republicans claim the decision is not binding Southerners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union.

38 Reading/Scott decision
DRED SCOTT DECISION Chief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted. “They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.” Reading/Scott decision

39 Involved in the Bleeding Kansas as a northern fighter
JOHN BROWN Violent abolitionist Involved in the Bleeding Kansas as a northern fighter Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas Wanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South. Picture/J.Brown

40 JOHN BROWN Attacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt. Picture/J.Brown

41 Put on trial for treason.
JOHN BROWN Unsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. Lee Put on trial for treason. Picture/J.Brown

42 Picture/J.Brown Hanging
JOHN BROWN He was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. His last words were to this effect: “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.” Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause. Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery. South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country. Picture/J.Brown Hanging

43 John Brown: Martyr or Madman?

44 Reading/Tubman on Brown

45 Reading/Lincoln on Brown

Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois in 1858. The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860. Slavery was the issue Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other. The Constitution had ultimately put slavery on the path to extinction. Was against the EXPANSION of slavery Douglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people. Popular sovereignty

The Freeport Doctrine: “Honest Abe” tricked Douglas into admitting that Popular Sovereignty could work against the expansion of slavery (what do if S.C. says slavery cannot be touched?)….. Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency in 1860

48 ELECTION OF 1860 Country is polarized over the issue of slavery.
Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina will secede from the U.S. along with several other Southern States to form the Confederate States of America---CSA 303 total electoral votes and 152 to win. Election of 1860

49 The Election of 1860 The divided Democrats nominated Douglas – perhaps not the most popular candidate since he had alienated Southerners The republicans nominated Lincoln Southern Democrats offered their own candidate, John C. Breckinridge from Kentucky A fourth group appeared - the Constitutional Union party led by John Bell of Tennessee. Their platform was to save the Union The Republicans ran on a platform of free-soil, protective tariffs, and internal improvements

50 The Election of 1860 Popular Vote

51 Southern secessionists threatened to leave the Union if Lincoln won the election
Lincoln was not an abolitionist. He wanted to compensate the slave owners, but he was afraid to make any statement that would alienate anyone 60% of the voters did not vote for Lincoln, but he won the election. In 10 southern states he wasn’t even on the ballot South Carolinians rejoiced since now they had a reason to secede Even all the other votes combined would not have stopped Lincoln winning

52 Secession Four days after the election, South Carolina voted unanimously to leave the Union Within weeks six other states in the lower South also left Four more joined later, bringing the total to eleven In 1861 seven of the states met in Montgomery, Alabama to form the Confederate States of America and chose Jefferson Davis as president The lame duck Buchanan believed the Constitution did not give him the power to act, so he literally did NOTHING (BEST. PRES. EVER)

53 Crittenden Compromise: A Last Ditch Appeal to Sanity
Senator John J. Crittenden (Know-Nothing-KY)

54 Crittenden Compromise
The attempt at compromise came from Senator James Crittenden of Kentucky His proposal was to appease the South: A) slavery would be prohibited north of 36º 30´ B) would be protected South of the line in present and future states C) future state it would be based on popular sovereignty Lincoln rejected the compromise because his election platform opposed slavery


56 Secession


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