Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR"— Presentation transcript:
1THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR 1. Conflicts over slavery and CompromisesSlavery in Louisiana Purchase?Manifest Destiny to 1850President James K. Polk—1845 to 1849Oregon TerritoryTexas Statehood--1845Mexican War to 1848US acquired the Mexican CessionTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo—1848Slavery in the Mexican Cession?Compromise of 1850Calif. Admitted as a free stateCreate 2 new territories = Popular SovereigntySouth: Enforce the Fugitive Slave LawNorth: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
2Gadsden PurchaseKansas-Nebraska ActStephen Douglas---build railroad in the NorthOrganize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular SovereigntyEffectsAbolitionists against itRuined the Missouri Compromiseled to violence----Bleeding KansasRepublican Party political party organized to stop the expansion of slavery
32. Judicial ArgumentsDred Scott— slave sued for his freedomSupreme Court DecisionConstitution did not apply to slavesLegalized slavery in the U.S.All compromises were unconstitutional3. John Brown’s RaidHarper’s FerryReactionsNorth---martyr for the abolitionist causeSouth---no other choice but secede
44. Election of 1860Lincoln wins electionSouth Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec. of 186010 other Southern States would secede in 1861Formed the CSA---Confederate States of AmericaWhy?
6Texas War of Independence Americans began moving into Texas in the 1820’s and brought their slaves with them.War fought by Texans against Mexico because they believed their rights had been violated.Won by Texans in 1836 and requests to enter the U.S.Texas War of Independence
7Texas War of Independence President Jackson and Van Buren refused to recognize Texas statehood because of slavery (PRINCIPLE OF WHITE LABOR).Texas became its own country with Sam Houston president, 1836 to 1845.Mexico never recognized the independence of Texas.
8Texas War of Independence1 Texas entered as a U.S. state in 1845.Mexico vowed if Texas became part of the U.S., this would be an act of war.One cause of the war with Mexico in 1846.Texas War of Independence1
9KEY EVENTS MANIFEST DESTINY American belief that U.S. would control the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific.KEY EVENTSTexas statehoodOregon territoryMexican WarMexican CessionPicture/M.Destiny
10KEY EVENTS Pioneers Trek West California trail Oregon trail MANIFEST DESTINYKEY EVENTSPioneers Trek WestCalifornia trailOregon trailMormon’s trailGold discoveredGold RushPicture/M.Destiny
11KEY EVENTS California statehood Donner Party 40 mile desert Ragtown MANIFEST DESTINYKEY EVENTSCalifornia statehoodDonner Party40 mile desertRagtownGenoaPicture/M.Destiny
14Picture/Polk James K. Polk, Democrat President from 1845 to 1849 MANIFEST DESTINYJames K. Polk, DemocratPresident from 1845 to 1849Responsible for the Manifest DestinyExpansionistAcquired the Oregon Territory from Great Britain in 184654’, 40’ or Fight49th Parallel became borderMexican War acquired Mexican Cession and completed U.S. control of the continent from ocean to oceanPicture/Polk
15Treaty with Great Britain in 1846 MANIFEST DESTINYOregon disputeThe Oregon TerritoryTreaty with Great Britain in 1846President Polk campaign slogan was 54,40 or fight…Compromised with British and divided the Oregon Country at the 49th parallel
16Long Term Causes Immediate Causes Effects Manifest DestinyCaliforniaImmediate CausesTexas statehood, 1845Mexico refusing to sell CaliforniaBorder disputeEffectsUS receives Mexican CessionDisputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil WarMEXICAN WARMexican War
20Election of 1848Both the Whigs and the Democrats remained silent on the issue of slavery even though Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession.
21Most intense debate in U.S. History Compromise of 1850Most intense debate in U.S. HistoryJohn C. CalhounNorth should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave LawSouth wanted CaliforniaThreatened to secede from U.S. (dead horse)U.S. should have two Presidents---one from the North and one for the SouthDaniel WebsterSecession is impractical & impossibleHow would we split the land?The military?Compromise at all costPreserve the UnionHenry ClayThe Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise.
22STEPHEN DOUGLAS U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois Solve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereigntylet the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not.Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850Calif. A free stateEnforce a stricter Fugitive Slave LawPopular Sovereigntystop slave trade in Washington, D.C.Picture/S.Douglas
23Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.Map Comp of 1850
24FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW ABOLITIONISTS RESPOND Denounced by Abolitionists Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is publishedAbolitionists refuse to enforce the lawUnderground Railroad becomes more active
25FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW SOUTHERNERS RESPOND Supremacy Clause Southerners threatened secession and warBelieved it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law (oh, look who’s changed their tune!).5th AmendmentSupremacy Clause
28The “Know-Nothings” Form [The American Party] Nativists.Anti-Catholics.Anti-immigrants.
29KANSAS AND NEBRASKA ACT Douglas really wanted to build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or North, but he had to convince the South to let him do this in the NorthProposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery w/popular sovereignty in return for building the railroad in the North.The Little Giant in Action
30Map Bleeding KanBLEEDING KANSASKansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers (totally overblown by media – border ruffians from South).First violent outbreaks between north/south.First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856.(Led by John Brown)Attacks by free-statesAttacks by pro-slavery states
31BLEEDING KANSASAfter the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and “massacres.” The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party.Bleeding Kan
32Effects of K-NWhigs were destroyed as northern ones helped form Republicans, joined Free-Soilers, or supported Nativists, and southern ones did nothingThe Dems shattered in two w/northerners furious at expansion of slaveryCompromise of 1850 nullified, along w/Missouri CompromiseKansas itself went pro-slavery with a corrupt Lecompton Constitution (pushed by Buchanan) even though slavery-free constitution passed in TopekaBroke the Little Giant’s heart and made him split w/Democrats due to pop. sov. failingBleeding Charles (1856) and “the rape of a virgin territory”
33“The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA)Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC) (Bully Brooks, who received many canes to replace his broken one)
34Parts and Formation of the Free Soil Party formed in the 40s (led by Van Buren) against the expansion of slaveryFormed to stop the expansion of slaveryParts and Formation of theREPUBLICAN PARTYDemocrats opposed the expansion of slavery (split in 1850s due to K-N Act)A Few AbolitionistsNational Republican which become the WhigsKnow Nothing Party(against immigration)
35The Election of 1856Fremont lost by a bare margin, and proved that the Republicans could take the entire election w/o the South, if they all voted together (South begins to get angry and suspicious about American politics)
36Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue DRED SCOTT DECISIONSlave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states.His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave.He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time.Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issueCan a slave sue for his freedom?Is a slave property?Is slavery legal?
37Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property.They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution.Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that :Congress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territoryMissouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutionalNorth refused to enforce Fugitive Slave LawFree states pass personal liberty laws.Republicans claim the decision is not bindingSoutherners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union.
38Reading/Scott decision DRED SCOTT DECISIONChief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted.“They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.”Reading/Scott decision
39Involved in the Bleeding Kansas as a northern fighter JOHN BROWNViolent abolitionistInvolved in the Bleeding Kansas as a northern fighterMurdered 5 pro-slavery men in KansasWanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South.Picture/J.Brown
40JOHN BROWNAttacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt.Picture/J.Brown
41Put on trial for treason. JOHN BROWNUnsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. LeePut on trial for treason.Picture/J.Brown
42Picture/J.Brown Hanging JOHN BROWNHe was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death.His last words were to this effect: “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.”Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause.Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery.South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country.Picture/J.Brown Hanging
46LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois in 1858.The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860.Slavery was the issueLincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other. The Constitution had ultimately put slavery on the path to extinction.Was against the EXPANSION of slaveryDouglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people.Popular sovereignty
47LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES The Freeport Doctrine: “Honest Abe” tricked Douglas into admitting that Popular Sovereignty could work against the expansion of slavery (what do if S.C. says slavery cannot be touched?)….. Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency in 1860
48ELECTION OF 1860 Country is polarized over the issue of slavery. Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina will secede from the U.S. along with several other Southern States to form the Confederate States of America---CSA303 total electoral votes and 152 to win.Election of 1860
49The Election of 1860The divided Democrats nominated Douglas – perhaps not the most popular candidate since he had alienated SouthernersThe republicans nominated LincolnSouthern Democrats offered their own candidate, John C. Breckinridge from KentuckyA fourth group appeared - the Constitutional Union party led by John Bell of Tennessee. Their platform was to save the UnionThe Republicans ran on a platform of free-soil, protective tariffs, and internal improvements
51Southern secessionists threatened to leave the Union if Lincoln won the election Lincoln was not an abolitionist. He wanted to compensate the slave owners, but he was afraid to make any statement that would alienate anyone60% of the voters did not vote for Lincoln, but he won the election. In 10 southern states he wasn’t even on the ballotSouth Carolinians rejoiced since now they had a reason to secedeEven all the other votes combined would not have stopped Lincoln winning
52SecessionFour days after the election, South Carolina voted unanimously to leave the UnionWithin weeks six other states in the lower South also leftFour more joined later, bringing the total to elevenIn 1861 seven of the states met in Montgomery, Alabama to form the Confederate States of America and chose Jefferson Davis as presidentThe lame duck Buchanan believed the Constitution did not give him the power to act, so he literally did NOTHING (BEST. PRES. EVER)
53Crittenden Compromise: A Last Ditch Appeal to Sanity Senator John J. Crittenden (Know-Nothing-KY)
54Crittenden Compromise The attempt at compromise came from Senator James Crittenden of KentuckyHis proposal was to appease the South:A) slavery would be prohibited north of 36º 30´B) would be protected South of the line in present and future statesC) future state it would be based on popular sovereigntyLincoln rejected the compromise because his election platform opposed slavery