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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10 SECTIONAL CONFLICT INTENSIFIES"— Presentation transcript:

Slavery in the Mexican Cession? Compromise of 1850 Calif. Admitted as a free state Create 2 new territories = Popular Sovereignty South: Enforce the Fugitive Slave Law North: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.

2 Kansas-Nebraska Act----1854
Gadsden Purchase Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas---build railroad in the North Organize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular Sovereignty Effects Abolitionists against it Ruined the Missouri Compromise led to violence----Bleeding Kansas Republican Party political party organized to stop the expansion of slavery notes 4

3 Judicial Arguments Dred Scott— slave sued for his freedom Supreme Court Decision Constitution did not apply to slaves Legalized slavery in the U.S. All compromises were unconstitutional John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry Reactions North---martyr for the abolitionist cause South---no other choice but secede

4 Election of 1860 Lincoln wins election South Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec of 1860. 10 other Southern States would secede in 1861 formed the CSA---Confederate States of America Why?

5 Presidential Candidates of 1848
Position Supported popular sovereignty Lewis Cass Martin Van Buren Opposed slavery in the west Zachary Taylor Did not express a position

6 Missouri Comp

7 Long Term Causes Immediate Causes Effects
Manifest Destiny California Immediate Causes Texas statehood, 1845 Mexico refusing to sell California Border dispute Effects US receives Mexican Cession Disputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil War MEXICAN WAR

8 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico U.S. paid Mexico $15 million



11 Most intense debate in U.S. History
COMPROMISE OF 1850 Most intense debate in U.S. History John C. Calhoun North should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave Law South wanted California threatened to secede from U.S. U.S. should have two Presidents---one from the North and one for the South Daniel Webster Secession is impractical & impossible How would we split the land? The military? Compromise at all cost Preserve the Union Henry Clay The Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise. Comp of 1850

12 California admitted As a free state Texas border Dispute w/ New Mexico Resolved Texas Receives $10 mill. New Fugitive Slave Act passed Compromise of 1850 Popular sovereignty To determine slavery Issue in Utah & New Mexico territories Slave trade abolished In D.C.

13 STEPHEN DOUGLAS U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois
Solve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereignty let the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not. Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850 Calif. A free state enforce Fugitive Slave Law Popular Sovereignty stop slave trade in Washington, D.C.

14 Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state. Map Comp of 1850

15 Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896)
So this is the lady who started the Civil War Abraham Lincoln

16 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.
2 million in a decade!

17 Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published Abolitionists refuse to enforce the law Underground Railroad becomes more active

FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW RESPONSE BY ABOLITIONISTS “An immoral law makes it a man’s duty to break it, at every hazard. For virtue is the very self of every man. It is therefore a principle of law that an immoral contract is void, and that an immoral statute is void. The Fugitive Slave Law is a statute which enacts the crime of kidnapping, a crime on one footing with arson and murder. A man’s right to liberty is as inalienable as his right to life……” Ralph Waldo Emerson “3 millions of the American people are crushed under the American Union! The government gives them no protection– the government is their enemy, the government keeps them in chains! The Union which grinds them to the dust rests upon us, and with them we will struggle to overthrow it! The Constitution which subjects them to hopeless bondage is one that we cannot swear to support. Our motto is, ‘No Union with Slaveholders’….We separate from them, to clear our skirts of innocent blood….and to hasten the downfall of slavery in America, and throughout the world!” William Lloyd Garrison

20 Southerners threatened secession and war
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW SOUTHERNERS RESPOND Southerners threatened secession and war Believed it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law. 5th Amendment Supremacy Clause

21 Effects Created open hostility toward slavery in the North Caused many to openly disobey the law Fugitive Slave Act More violence erupted over the issue of slavery Increased the activity of the Underground Railroad

22 Map expansion


Build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or North Stephen Douglas wanted the railroad built in the North but had to convince the South otherwise. Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery in return for building the railroad in the North. Popular Sovereignty

25 Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state. Map Kan/Neb Act

26 Map Bleeding Kan BLEEDING KANSAS Kansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers. First violent outbreaks between north/south. First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856. Over 200 killed (Led by John Brown) Attacks by free-states Attacks by pro-slavery states

27 BLEEDING KANSAS After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and massacres. The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party. The first shots of the Civil War were in Bleeding Kansas.

28 1852 Presidential Election
√ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil

29 1852 Election Results

30 The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party]
Nativists. Anti-Catholics. Anti-immigrants. 1849  Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.

31 REPUBLICAN PARTY Free Soil Party against the expansion of slavery
Formed to stop the expansion of slavery REPUBLICAN PARTY Democrats opposed the expansion of slavery Abolitionists National Republican which become the Whigs. Know Nothing Party against immigration

32 Causes Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott decision Growing Tensions Lecompton constitution John Brown’s raid

33 Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue
DRED SCOTT DECISION Slave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states. His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave. He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time. Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue Can a slave sue for his freedom? Is a slave property? Is slavery legal?

34 Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision
Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property. They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution. Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that Congress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territory Missouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutional North refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Law Free states pass personal liberty laws. Republicans claim the decision is not binding Southerners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union. Chart/Effect of Scott

35 Reading/Scott decision
DRED SCOTT DECISION Chief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted. “They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.” Reading/Scott decision

36 Involved in the Bleeding Kansas Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas
JOHN BROWN Violent abolitionist Involved in the Bleeding Kansas Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas Wanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South. Picture/J.Brown

37 JOHN BROWN Attacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt. Picture/J.Brown

38 Put on trial for treason.
JOHN BROWN Unsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. Lee Put on trial for treason. Picture/J.Brown

39 JOHN BROWN He was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death.
His last words were to this effect: “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.” Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause. Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery. South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country.

40 John Brown: Martyr or Madman?

41 Reading/Tubman on Brown

42 Reading/Lincoln on Brown

43 Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois.
LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois. The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860. Slavery was the issue Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other. was against the expansion of slavery Douglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people. Popular sovereignty Chart/L&D Debates

Lincoln got Douglas to admit that Popular Sovereignty could work against the expansion of slavery….. Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency in 1860 Picture/ L&D Debates

45 Reading/Lincoln on slavery

46 ELECTION OF 1860 Country is polarized (divided) over the issue of slavery. Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina will secede from the U.S. along with several other Southern States. They will form the Confederate States of America---CSA 303 total electoral votes and 152 to win. Election of 1860


48 Secession


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