Presentation on theme: " Slavery in the Mexican Cession? Compromise of 1850 Calif. Admitted as a free state Popular Sovereignty Create 2 new territories = Popular Sovereignty."— Presentation transcript:
Slavery in the Mexican Cession? Compromise of 1850 Calif. Admitted as a free state Popular Sovereignty Create 2 new territories = Popular Sovereignty SouthSouth: Enforce the Fugitive Slave Law North:North: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
Gadsden Purchase----1853 Kansas-Nebraska Act----1854 Stephen Douglas---build railroad in the North Organize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular Sovereignty Effects Abolitionists against it Ruined the Missouri Compromise led to violence----Bleeding Kansas---1856 Republican Party---1856---political party organized to stop the expansion of slavery notes 4
Judicial Arguments Dred Scott—1857-----slave sued for his freedom Supreme Court Decision Constitution did not apply to slaves Legalized slavery in the U.S. All compromises were unconstitutional John Brown’s Raid---1859 Harper’s Ferry Reactions North---martyr for the abolitionist cause South---no other choice but secede
Election of 1860 Lincoln wins election South Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec of 1860. 10 other Southern States would secede in 1861 formed the CSA---Confederate States of America Why?
CandidatePosition Lewis Cass Supported popular sovereignty Martin Van Buren Opposed slavery in the west Zachary TaylorDid not express a position Presidential Candidates of 1848
Long Term Causes Manifest Destiny California Immediate Causes Texas statehood, 1845 Mexico refusing to sell California Border disputeEffects US receives Mexican Cession Disputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico U.S. paid Mexico $15 million U.S. paid Mexico $15 million Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S. Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and Mexico U.S. paid Mexico $15 million U.S. paid Mexico $15 million
Most intense debate in U.S. History John C. Calhoun John C. Calhoun North should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave Law South wanted California threatened to secede from U.S. U.S. should have two Presidents--- one from the North and one for the South Comp of 1850 Daniel Webster Daniel Webster Secession is impractical & impossible How would we split the land? The military? Compromise at all cost Preserve the Union Henry Clay Henry Clay The Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise.
Compromise of 1850 California admitted As a free state New Fugitive Slave Act passed Slave trade abolished In D.C. Popular sovereignty To determine slavery Issue in Utah & New Mexico territories Texas border Dispute w/ New Mexico Resolved Texas Receives $10 mill.
U.S. Senator from the state of IllinoisU.S. Senator from the state of Illinois Solve the slavery issue was through Popular SovereigntySolve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereignty let the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not.let the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not. Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850 Calif. A free stateCalif. A free state enforce Fugitive Slave Lawenforce Fugitive Slave Law Popular SovereigntyPopular Sovereignty stop slave trade in Washington, D.C.stop slave trade in Washington, D.C.
Map Comp of 1850 Popular Sovereignty Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln
Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade! Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852
ABOLITIONISTS RESPOND Denounced by Abolitionists Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published Abolitionists refuse to enforce the law Underground Railroad becomes more active
RESPONSE BY ABOLITIONISTS Ralph Waldo Emerson “An immoral law makes it a man’s duty to break it, at every hazard. For virtue is the very self of every man. It is therefore a principle of law that an immoral contract is void, and that an immoral statute is void. The Fugitive Slave Law is a statute which enacts the crime of kidnapping, a crime on one footing with arson and murder. A man’s right to liberty is as inalienable as his right to life……” Ralph Waldo Emerson William Lloyd Garrison “3 millions of the American people are crushed under the American Union! The government gives them no protection– the government is their enemy, the government keeps them in chains! The Union which grinds them to the dust rests upon us, and with them we will struggle to overthrow it! The Constitution which subjects them to hopeless bondage is one that we cannot swear to support. Our motto is, ‘No Union with Slaveholders’….We separate from them, to clear our skirts of innocent blood….and to hasten the downfall of slavery in America, and throughout the world!” William Lloyd Garrison
SOUTHERNERS RESPOND Southerners threatened secession and war Believed it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law. 5 th Amendment Supremacy Clause
Fugitive Slave Act Effects Created open hostility toward slavery in the North Caused many to openly disobey the law More violence erupted over the issue of slavery Increased the activity of the Underground Railroad
Build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or North Build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or North Stephen Douglas wanted the railroad built in the North but had to convince the South otherwise. Stephen Douglas wanted the railroad built in the North but had to convince the South otherwise. Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery in return for building the railroad in the North. Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery in return for building the railroad in the North. Popular Sovereignty Popular Sovereignty
Map Kan/Neb Act Popular Sovereignty Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.
Map Bleeding Kan Attacks by free-states Attacks by pro-slavery states (Led by John Brown) Kansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro- slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers. Kansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro- slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers. First violent outbreaks between north/south. First violent outbreaks between north/south. First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856. First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856. Over 200 killed Over 200 killed
After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and massacres. The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party. The first shots of the Civil War were in Bleeding Kansas.
1852 Presidential Election √ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil
1852 Election Results
The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] Nativists. Anti- Catholics. Anti- immigrants. Nativists. Anti- Catholics. Anti- immigrants. 1849 Secret Order of the Star- Spangled Banner created in NYC.
REPUBLICAN PARTY Formed to stop the expansion of slavery National Republican which become the Whigs. Free Soil Party against the expansion of slavery Democrats opposed the expansion of slavery Abolitionists Know Nothing Party against immigration
Causes Growing Tensions Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott decision Lecompton constitution John Brown’s raid
Slave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states. His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave. He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time. Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue Can a slave sue for his freedom? Is a slave property? Is slavery legal?
Chart/Effect of Scott Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision North refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Law Free states pass personal liberty laws. Republicans claim the decision is not binding Southerners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union. Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property. They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution. Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that Congress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territory Missouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutional
Reading/Scott decision “They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.” Chief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted.
Violent abolitionist Involved in the Bleeding Kansas Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas Wanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South. Picture/J.Brown
Attacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt. Picture/J.Brown
Unsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. Lee Put on trial for treason. Picture/J.Brown
He was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.”His last words were to this effect: “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.” Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause. Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery. South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country.
Reading/Tubman on Brown
Reading/Lincoln on Brown
Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois. The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860. Slavery was the issue Lincoln stated:Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other. was against the expansion of slavery Douglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people. Popular sovereignty Chart/L&D Debates
Lincoln got Douglas to admit that Popular Sovereignty could work against the expansion of slavery….. Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency in 1860 Picture/ L&D Debates
Reading/Lincoln on slavery
Election of 1860 Country is polarized (divided) over the issue of slavery. Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina will secede from the U.S. along with several other Southern States. They will form the Confederate States of America---CSA 303 total electoral votes and 152 to win.