Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10 SECTIONAL CONFLICT INTENSIFIES"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 10 SECTIONAL CONFLICT INTENSIFIES 1848-1860 Slavery in the Mexican Cession?Compromise of 1850Calif. Admitted as a free stateCreate 2 new territories = Popular SovereigntySouth: Enforce the Fugitive Slave LawNorth: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
2Kansas-Nebraska Act----1854 Gadsden PurchaseKansas-Nebraska ActStephen Douglas---build railroad in the NorthOrganize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular SovereigntyEffectsAbolitionists against itRuined the Missouri Compromiseled to violence----Bleeding KansasRepublican Party political party organized to stop the expansion of slaverynotes 4
3Judicial ArgumentsDred Scott— slave sued for his freedomSupreme Court DecisionConstitution did not apply to slavesLegalized slavery in the U.S.All compromises were unconstitutionalJohn Brown’s RaidHarper’s FerryReactionsNorth---martyr for the abolitionist causeSouth---no other choice but secede
4Election of 1860Lincoln wins electionSouth Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec of 1860.10 other Southern States would secede in 1861formed the CSA---Confederate States of AmericaWhy?
5Presidential Candidates of 1848 PositionSupported popularsovereigntyLewis CassMartin Van BurenOpposed slavery in the westZachary TaylorDid not express a position
7Long Term Causes Immediate Causes Effects Manifest DestinyCaliforniaImmediate CausesTexas statehood, 1845Mexico refusing to sell CaliforniaBorder disputeEffectsUS receives Mexican CessionDisputes over expansion of slavery will lead to the Civil WarMEXICAN WAR
8Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico ceded the Mexican Cession to U.S.Rio Grande River boundary between U.S. and MexicoU.S. paid Mexico $15 million
11Most intense debate in U.S. History COMPROMISE OF 1850Most intense debate in U.S. HistoryJohn C. CalhounNorth should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave LawSouth wanted Californiathreatened to secede from U.S.U.S. should have two Presidents---one from the North and one for the SouthDaniel WebsterSecession is impractical & impossibleHow would we split the land?The military?Compromise at all costPreserve the UnionHenry ClayThe Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise.Comp of 1850
12California admittedAs a free stateTexas borderDispute w/New MexicoResolved TexasReceives $10 mill.New Fugitive SlaveAct passedCompromise of1850Popular sovereigntyTo determine slaveryIssue in Utah & New MexicoterritoriesSlave trade abolishedIn D.C.
13STEPHEN DOUGLAS U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois Solve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereigntylet the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not.Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850Calif. A free stateenforce Fugitive Slave LawPopular Sovereigntystop slave trade in Washington, D.C.
14Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.Map Comp of 1850
15Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War Abraham Lincoln
16Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
18FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW ABOLITIONISTS RESPOND Denounced by Abolitionists Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is publishedAbolitionists refuse to enforce the lawUnderground Railroad becomes more active
19RESPONSE BY ABOLITIONISTS FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWRESPONSE BY ABOLITIONISTS“An immoral law makes it a man’s duty to break it, at every hazard. For virtue is the very self of every man. It is therefore a principle of law that an immoral contract is void, and that an immoral statute is void. The Fugitive Slave Law is a statute which enacts the crime of kidnapping, a crime on one footing with arson and murder. A man’s right to liberty is as inalienable as his right to life……” Ralph Waldo Emerson“3 millions of the American people are crushed under the American Union! The government gives them no protection– the government is their enemy, the government keeps them in chains! The Union which grinds them to the dust rests upon us, and with them we will struggle to overthrow it! The Constitution which subjects them to hopeless bondage is one that we cannot swear to support. Our motto is, ‘No Union with Slaveholders’….We separate from them, to clear our skirts of innocent blood….and to hasten the downfall of slavery in America, and throughout the world!” William Lloyd Garrison
20Southerners threatened secession and war FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWSOUTHERNERS RESPONDSoutherners threatened secession and warBelieved it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law.5th AmendmentSupremacy Clause
21EffectsCreated open hostilitytoward slavery in the NorthCaused many to openlydisobey the lawFugitive SlaveActMore violence eruptedover the issue of slaveryIncreased the activity of theUnderground Railroad
24KANSAS AND NEBRASKA ACT Build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or NorthStephen Douglas wanted the railroad built in the North but had to convince the South otherwise.Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery in return for building the railroad in the North.Popular Sovereignty
25Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.Map Kan/Neb Act
26Map Bleeding KanBLEEDING KANSASKansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers.First violent outbreaks between north/south.First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856.Over 200 killed(Led by John Brown)Attacks by free-statesAttacks by pro-slavery states
27BLEEDING KANSASAfter the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and massacres. The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party. The first shots of the Civil War were in Bleeding Kansas.
281852 Presidential Election √ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil
30The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] Nativists.Anti-Catholics.Anti-immigrants.1849 Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.
31REPUBLICAN PARTY Free Soil Party against the expansion of slavery Formed to stop the expansion of slaveryREPUBLICAN PARTYDemocrats opposed the expansion of slaveryAbolitionistsNational Republican which become the Whigs.Know Nothing Partyagainst immigration
32CausesKansas-Nebraska ActDred Scott decisionGrowing TensionsLecompton constitutionJohn Brown’s raid
33Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue DRED SCOTT DECISIONSlave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states.His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave.He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time.Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issueCan a slave sue for his freedom?Is a slave property?Is slavery legal?
34Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property.They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution.Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying thatCongress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territoryMissouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutionalNorth refused to enforce Fugitive Slave LawFree states pass personal liberty laws.Republicans claim the decision is not bindingSoutherners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union.Chart/Effect of Scott
35Reading/Scott decision DRED SCOTT DECISIONChief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted.“They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.”Reading/Scott decision
36Involved in the Bleeding Kansas Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas JOHN BROWNViolent abolitionistInvolved in the Bleeding KansasMurdered 5 pro-slavery men in KansasWanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South.Picture/J.Brown
37JOHN BROWNAttacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt.Picture/J.Brown
38Put on trial for treason. JOHN BROWNUnsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. LeePut on trial for treason.Picture/J.Brown
39JOHN BROWN He was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. His last words were to this effect: “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.”Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause.Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery.South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country.
43Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois. LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATESLincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois.The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860.Slavery was the issueLincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other.was against the expansion of slaveryDouglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people.Popular sovereigntyChart/L&D Debates
44LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES Lincoln got Douglas to admit that Popular Sovereignty could work against the expansion of slavery….. Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency in 1860Picture/ L&D Debates
46ELECTION OF 1860Country is polarized (divided) over the issue of slavery.Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina will secede from the U.S. along with several other Southern States.They will form the Confederate States of America---CSA303 total electoral votes and 152 to win.Election of 1860