Presentation on theme: "Made trade quicker, easier and cheaper between the West and East, North and South 3/5 th compromise Commerce Compromise (20 years) War, Treaty and Purchases."— Presentation transcript:
Made trade quicker, easier and cheaper between the West and East, North and South 3/5 th compromise Commerce Compromise (20 years) War, Treaty and Purchases Bellringer What are 3 ways the US expanded to satisfy Manifest Destiny? Name two compromises in the Constitution that deal with Slavery. How did the Erie Canal and Transcontinental RR help the US?
The Fugitive Slave act forced Americans to report runaways House of Burgesses and Mayflower Compact If MS joined as a slave state, the senate would have more slave senators than free Bellringer Why was there debate over Missouri joining the USA ? What were the first forms of self government in the colonies? Why did escaping slaves need to go to Canada?
Antebellum: Slavery Conflicts in law
Review Manifest Destiny was fueled since the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory. Soon treaties, wars, and purchases had expanded the USA all the way to the Pacific Coast: -Adams-Onis Treaty= Florida -Gadsden Purchase= South West California -Mexican War= Texas, California, New Mexico and Arizona -Oregon Compromise= 49 th Parallel (Oregon)
Problems As the US expands, the debate over slavery heats up. Some believed new territories should be admitted as slave states, others believed they should be free states. These conflicts played out in a series of compromises, deals and laws to keep the peace.
Representation The decision over whether or not slavery was allowed in the territories was especially important because of representation. The North, with a bigger population, already dominated the House of Representatives. The South, therefore, demanded a balance of power in the Senate, where each state gets 2 Senators.
Missouri Compromise (1820) As America gained more lands, the question of whether or not slavery should be allowed in the territories resurfaced. When Missouri asked to join the USA debate raged over whether Missouri would be a slave or free state.
Missouri compromise (cont…) North : Missouri as a Slave state would upset the balance of power in Congress South : Government can’t tell states what to do (reserved powers) Compromise : Missouri would join as a Slave state, but Maine would also join as a free (keeps Congress balanced) Any states North of the 36◦30’N would be Free
Compromise of 1850 After the Mexican War, the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo granted the United States a huge tract of land in the Southwest. Many northern abolitionists worried that the territory would become slave states. In 1849 the debate heated up when the state of California asked to join the Union as a Free state. What event occurred in 1849 that caused thousands of people to settle in California? Gold Rush
Compromise (cont…) Henry Clay proposed 5 laws that would keep the peace: 1)California would be a Free state 2)New Mexico and Utah could decide for themselves to be a free or slave state 3)Slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C. 4)Slavery was still legal in D.C. 5)The Fugitive Slave law Can you tell which laws were meant to satisfy the Northern States and which were meant for the Southern States?
Fugitive Slave Law The fugitive slave law required that ALL citizens must return escaped slaves to their owners. Additionally, because slaves were still considered property they could not sue their owners or plead for freedom with a jury trial.
Kansas Nebraska Acts (1854) Ambitious senator Stephen Douglas wanted Kansas and Nebraska to become states so the railroad could be extended from Chicago, Illinois into the West. However, Kansas and Nebraska are North of 36◦30’N, therefore could only be admitted as Free states. However, this would upset the South. So Douglass proposed the Kansas Nebraska Act: -The issue of slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Popular sovereignty- policy of letting people in a territory decide whether slavery would be allowed
Kansas Nebraska Acts (1854) The Kansas Nebraska Act turned into a mistake for Douglass. The Southerners were happy that slavery could be extended north of the Missouri Compromise line, but the Northerners saw the act as a sell out to the South. What should have been peaceful movements to determine popular sovereignty turned into several bloody and chaotic events. Popular sovereignty- policy of letting people in a territory decide whether slavery would be allowed
Fighting for Kansas In anti-slavery groups sent some 1,200 New Englanders to Kansas to fight against Slavery. These people were known as the Free Soilers. Proslavery settlers from Missouri crossed into Kansas to illegally vote in territorial elections. Free Soiler- people who worked to end slavery in the territories
Bleeding Kansas (1856) Proslavery Southerners looted newspaper offices, businesses and homes in Lawrence, Kansas, a center of free-soiler activity. This illegal action was supported by a proslavery Federal Marshal. In response John Brown, an Ohio raised abolitionist, gathered a group of New Englanders to a proslavery town. Together they dragged 5 men from their homes, killing them with swords in front of their families.
Bleeding Sumner Violence was not only found in Kansas. On May 22, 1856, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts gave a speech titled “The Crime against Kansas”. Sumner, a powerful abolitionist, attacked southerners for forcing slavery into Kansas. Preston Brooks, enraged at Sumner’s words, approached Sumner 2 days later and beat him with a cane. Sumner survived but was never healthy again. Brooks resigned, but was immediately reelected.
Dred Scott decision 1857 Scott v Sandford Case brief: -Dred Scott, an enslaved man in Missouri filed suit against his owner. -He claimed that since he had lived in free territories, he was free. -Sandford claimed Scott was a slave, and therefore property. Amendments 4 and 5 protect property Supreme Court decision: -Scott is not a citizen and therefore cannot sue in court -Southerners can take their property with them anywhere, including free territories -Slaves are property
The Lincoln Douglas debates 1858 As slavery debates continued to rock government, debates between two up and coming senate nominees in Illinois. DouglasAbraham Lincoln -Believed Whites were superior to African Americans -Americans should have popular Sovereignty -believed everyone was due the rights of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness. -Majority rule should not deny minorities their rights NEITHER man wanted to forbid slavery
Lincoln Douglas Debates The debates between Lincoln and Douglas were covered nationwide. Eventually, Douglas won the Election. However, Abraham has made his mark as an eloquent, moral man known. He had also foretold a severe issue approaching: “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.”
John Brown’s raid 1858 John Brown, famous for the slaying of 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas, attacked the Federal Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. Brown, along with 21 other men, attacked the arsenal. They were hoping to secure the weapons, give them to enslaved people, and incite an uprising of the slaves. The US troops, under the command of Robert E. Lee, surrounded the arsenal, killing half the men. Brown even lost two of his sons. After being arrested, Brown was convicted of treason and sentenced to be hanged. Arsenal- place where weapons are made and stored 2mins 5mins
Failure Despite the many attempts at compromise, Slavery is still a hot button topic. However, the issue of slavery is not truly the argument. The debate is whether states or the government have the right to decide the slavery issue. As the topic is further debated, the US comes closer and closer to the Civil War.
Review The abolitionist movement, the women’s suffrage movement, and the current Gay rights movement are all examples of reform efforts that 1.Succeeded without causing major controversy 2.Developed significant popular support 3.Achieved their goals without government action 4.Failed to affect the nation as a whole
Review “Compromise Enables Main and Missouri to Enter Union (1820)” “California Admitted to Union as Free State (1850)” “Kansas- Nebraska Act Sets up Popular Sovereignty (1854) Which issue is reflected by these headlines? 1.Enactment of protective tariffs 2.Extension of slavery 3.Voting rights for minorities 4.Universal public education
Review “By the 1850s, the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of national discord.” This quotation suggests that 1.Vast differences of opinion existed over the issue of States rights 2.The federal government had become more interested in foreign affairs than in domestic problems 3.The constitution had no provisions for governing new territories 4.The southern states continued to import slaves
Review The United States Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v Sanford (1857) was important because it 1.Strengthened the determination of abolitionists to achieve their goals 2.Caused the immediate outbreak of the Civil War 3.Ended the importation of slaves into the United States 4.Increased the power of Congress to exclude slavery from the territories