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Chapter 2 – The Young Republic

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1 Chapter 2 – The Young Republic

2 Section 1 – The New Republic
Bill of Rights added to the Constitution Research the amendment you have been given and prepare an oral presentation. Explain what the amendment protects. Explain the details of a Supreme Court case involving your amendment. (Name of the case, details of the case, and the Court’s ruling in the case.) You will have time to work on your presentation Wednesday or Thursday and will give your presentation Friday.

3 Section 1 – The New Republic
A new national bank Secretary Of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton Jefferson, Madison oppose – gives govt. too much power Enumerated powers – specifically stated in Constitution Implied powers “necessary and proper” clause Whiskey Rebellion Brought in needed revenue Western farmers rebelled violently 1794 Washington ends rebellion with 13,000 troops

4 Section 1 – The New Republic cont…
New political parties Federalists – Alexander Hamilton manufacturers, merchants, bankers, Northeasterners, favored trade and manufacturing Democratic-Republicans – Jefferson and Madison farmers, Westerners and Southerners Alien and Sedition Acts Federalists in Congress passed in 1798 Made it a crime to say or print anything “false, scandalous, or malicious” Made it hard for foreigners to gain citizenship , easier to be deported Kentucky and Virginia pass resolutions challenging Constitutionality Election of 1800 Peaceful transition of power – Adams to Jefferson 12th Amendment to avoid ties in elections.

5 Section 1 – The New Republic cont…
Jefferson in office Limited the reach of government Paid off Fed. Debt, cut govt. spending, eliminated the whiskey tax, reduced the armed forces Marbury v. Madison John Adams and the Midnight Judges Jefferson withholds paperwork William Marbury asked Supreme Court to force Jefferson to give him his appointment – the Court says it can’t Supreme Court strikes down Judiciary Act of 1789 Chief Justice John Marshall Establishes right of judicial review Supreme Court has the power to decide if a law is Constitutional Westward Expansion – France sells Louisiana Territory to U.S. Louisiana Purchase costs 15 million dollars Purchase more than doubles the size of U.S. Jefferson troubled by decision – strict constructionist

6 Section 1 – The New Republic cont…
War of 1812 Madison becomes president in 1809 Britain and France at war, U.S. is caught in the middle British impressment, inciting Native American attacks Embargo Act of 1807 – hurt our merchants, not British Early U.S. victories in Canada, Britain responds by burning the White House and Capital in Washington D.C. September 13, 1812 – Francis Scott Key, “ The Star Spangled Banner” Treat of Ghent – December 24, 1814 Federalists Party destroyed after discussing secession during war

7 Section 1 Questions Review pages 78 – 83 and answer the following questions: 1. Explain how the difference between enumerated powers and implied powers were used to justify the National Bank. 2. What did the Alien and Sedition Acts do and what was inherently wrong with the Sedition Acts? 3. How did the Marbury v. Madison decision by the Supreme Court expand the power of the Judicial Branch? 4. Explain why Thomas Jefferson had such strong reservations about buying the Louisiana Territory.

8 Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation
James Monroe easily won presidency in 1816 End of the Federalists Party Economic Changes The Second National Bank is established in 1816 It had the power to issue a national currency and control state banks The Tariff of 1816 – designed to protect American manufacturers from cheap British imports. Positive and negative effects Transportation improvements President Monroe vetoed bill authorizing construction of roads and canals Private businesses and local governments began work

9 Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation cont…
Important Supreme Court Decisions McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 State of Maryland was attempting to tax the National Bank. The court ruled that the federal government had the right to operate the bank and that a state could not interfere with a government agency Gibbons v. Ogden 1824 The court ruled that states could regulate commerce only in their own borders, but interstate commerce was controlled by the federal government Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 Spain gave Florida to the U.S. Monroe Doctrine Issued by President Monroe in 1823 Warned European countries to stay out of the affairs of newly independent Latin American counties An act of aggression against them would be seen as an act of aggression against the U.S.

10 Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation cont…
Transportation – Private and government investment in roads, canals, and railroads connected the rapidly growing country. Industrialization – Government policies enabled business to grow. New developments like interchangeable parts allowed for the mass production of consumer goods. Communication – Samuel Morse perfected the telegraph and developed Morse Code. By 1860 there was 50,000 mile of telegraph wire across the country. Immigration – German and Irish immigrants poured into the country. They provided a plentiful supply of cheap labor. Some Americans resented their arrival.

11 Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation cont…
Rise of Labor Unions Poor working conditions and long hours led to the creation of labor union. However they were not very effective at this time because labor was plentiful and the courts did not support them. Importance of Agriculture Agriculture was the nations leading economic activity. By 1860 cotton production accounted for 2/3’s of the nations export trade. Enslaved and Free African Americans The slave population grew from 1.5 million in 1820 to 3.2 million in They made up 37% of the South’s population. Free African Americans faced discrimination in the North.

12 Section 3: Growing Division and Reform
The Resurgence of Sectionalism The Missouri Compromise Henry Clay 11 slave states & 11 free states Free states controlled House of Representatives Balance in Senate important Missouri slave/Maine free 36/30 Missouri Compromise Line

13 Section 3: Growing Division and Reform, cont…
Andrew Jackson Elected President in 1828 (felt he was robbed of election in 1824) Jacksonian Democracy Support came from Southern and Western States His inauguration was shocking to Washington D.C. society Spoils system: gave government jobs to party supporters. Positives and Negatives National nominating conventions instead of closed meetings

14 Section 3: Growing Division and Reform, cont…
Issues During Jackson’s Terms The Nullification Crisis 1828 Tariff of Abominations South Carolina threatens secession V.P. John Calhoun (S.C.) – nullification idea / treason? Henry Clay compromise again Native American Removal 1830 Indian Removal Act Worcester v. Georgia (1832) “Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it” Trail of Tears – 4000 died

15 Section 3: Growing Division and Reform, cont…
The Reform Spirit The Second Great Awakening Evangelical revivals New Protestant Churches: Unitarianism ,Universalism, Mormons Benevolent societies Social reform Temperance Prison reform Education reform Women’s movement Abolitionist movement

16 Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis
1840’s – Oregon Trail, California Trail, Santa Fe Trail Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) Texas gains independence (1836) Texas becomes a state (1845) Oregon becomes a territory War with Mexico ( ) Mexico won’t sell California President Polk instigates war Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo U.S. gains 500,000 sq. miles (California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, etc.)

17 Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont…
Mexican War Impact Popular Sovereignty – citizens choose California Gold Rush (1849) Discovery of gold led to population growth and request for statehood. Slavery issue again. Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay again California free state Fugitive Slave Law adopted Slave trade (not slavery) abolished in Washington D.C. Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico

18 Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont…
The Fugitive Slave Act Created deep hostility in North Made it difficult to gain or keep freedom Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman & Levi Coffin Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) Harriett Beecher Stowe Aroused passionate anti-slavery sentiment in the North Millions of copies sold

19 Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont…
New Territorial Troubles Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue in territories Nebraska free/Kansas slave Bleeding Kansas Anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups moved into Kansas to influence election March 1856 – two governments created Pro-slavery groups began attacking anti-slavery groups

20 Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont…
Sectional Divisions Grow Dred Scott v. Sanford (1856) Sued for his freedom since he had been taken to free territory to work for several years. Court ruled that African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not sue in courts. Also ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in territories. Violence and disagreement continued until 1861-when Kansas became a free state.

21 Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont…
John Brown’s Raid Violent anti-slavery activist Moved to Kansas to fight He and his supporters killed 5 pro-slavery settlers 1859 – He and his followers seized the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Hoped to incite and lead a slave rebellion The plan failed, his sons were killed in gun battle with Marines, Brown was captured, tried and sentenced to death Hero or Terrorists?

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