2Section 1 – The New Republic Bill of Rights added to the ConstitutionResearch the amendment you have been given and prepare an oral presentation.Explain what the amendment protects.Explain the details of a Supreme Court case involving your amendment. (Name of the case, details of the case, and the Court’s ruling in the case.)You will have time to work on your presentation Wednesday or Thursday and will give your presentation Friday.
3Section 1 – The New Republic A new national bankSecretary Of Treasury, Alexander HamiltonJefferson, Madison oppose – gives govt. too much powerEnumerated powers – specifically stated in ConstitutionImplied powers “necessary and proper” clauseWhiskey RebellionBrought in needed revenueWestern farmers rebelled violently1794 Washington ends rebellion with13,000 troops
4Section 1 – The New Republic cont… New political partiesFederalists – Alexander Hamiltonmanufacturers, merchants, bankers, Northeasterners, favored trade and manufacturingDemocratic-Republicans – Jefferson and Madisonfarmers, Westerners and SouthernersAlien and Sedition ActsFederalists in Congress passed in 1798Made it a crime to say or print anything “false, scandalous, or malicious”Made it hard for foreigners to gain citizenship , easier to be deportedKentucky and Virginia pass resolutions challenging ConstitutionalityElection of 1800Peaceful transition of power – Adams to Jefferson12th Amendment to avoid ties in elections.
5Section 1 – The New Republic cont… Jefferson in officeLimited the reach of governmentPaid off Fed. Debt, cut govt. spending, eliminated the whiskey tax, reduced the armed forcesMarbury v. MadisonJohn Adams and the Midnight JudgesJefferson withholds paperworkWilliam Marbury asked Supreme Court to force Jefferson to give him his appointment – the Court says it can’tSupreme Court strikes down Judiciary Act of 1789Chief Justice John Marshall Establishes right of judicial reviewSupreme Court has the power to decide if a law is ConstitutionalWestward Expansion – France sells Louisiana Territory to U.S.Louisiana Purchase costs 15 million dollarsPurchase more than doubles the size of U.S.Jefferson troubled by decision – strict constructionist
6Section 1 – The New Republic cont… War of 1812Madison becomes president in 1809Britain and France at war, U.S. is caught in the middleBritish impressment, inciting Native American attacksEmbargo Act of 1807 – hurt our merchants, not BritishEarly U.S. victories in Canada, Britain responds by burning the White House and Capital in Washington D.C.September 13, 1812 – Francis Scott Key, “ The Star Spangled Banner”Treat of Ghent – December 24, 1814Federalists Party destroyed after discussing secession during war
7Section 1 QuestionsReview pages 78 – 83 and answer the following questions:1. Explain how the difference between enumerated powers and implied powers were used to justify the National Bank.2. What did the Alien and Sedition Acts do and what was inherently wrong with the Sedition Acts?3. How did the Marbury v. Madison decision by the Supreme Court expand the power of the Judicial Branch?4. Explain why Thomas Jefferson had such strong reservations about buying the Louisiana Territory.
8Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation James Monroe easily won presidency in 1816End of the Federalists PartyEconomic ChangesThe Second National Bank is established in 1816It had the power to issue a national currency and control state banksThe Tariff of 1816 – designed to protect American manufacturers from cheap British imports.Positive and negative effectsTransportation improvementsPresident Monroe vetoed bill authorizing construction of roads and canalsPrivate businesses and local governments began work
9Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation cont… Important Supreme Court DecisionsMcCulloch v. Maryland 1819State of Maryland was attempting to tax the National Bank. The court ruled that the federal government had the right to operate the bank and that a state could not interfere with a government agencyGibbons v. Ogden 1824The court ruled that states could regulate commerce only in their own borders, but interstate commerce was controlled by the federal governmentAdams-Onis Treaty of 1819Spain gave Florida to the U.S.Monroe DoctrineIssued by President Monroe in 1823Warned European countries to stay out of the affairs of newly independent Latin American countiesAn act of aggression against them would be seen as an act of aggression against the U.S.
10Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation cont… Transportation – Private and government investment in roads, canals, and railroads connected the rapidly growing country.Industrialization – Government policies enabled business to grow. New developments like interchangeable parts allowed for the mass production of consumer goods.Communication – Samuel Morse perfected the telegraph and developed Morse Code. By 1860 there was 50,000 mile of telegraph wire across the country.Immigration – German and Irish immigrants poured into the country. They provided a plentiful supply of cheap labor. Some Americans resented their arrival.
11Section 2 – The Growth of a Nation cont… Rise of Labor UnionsPoor working conditions and long hours led to the creation of labor union. However they were not very effective at this time because labor was plentiful and the courts did not support them.Importance of AgricultureAgriculture was the nations leading economic activity.By 1860 cotton production accounted for 2/3’s of the nations export trade.Enslaved and Free African AmericansThe slave population grew from 1.5 million in 1820 to 3.2 million in They made up 37% of the South’s population.Free African Americans faced discrimination in the North.
12Section 3: Growing Division and Reform The Resurgence of SectionalismThe Missouri CompromiseHenry Clay11 slave states & 11 free statesFree states controlled House of RepresentativesBalance in Senate importantMissouri slave/Maine free36/30 Missouri Compromise Line
13Section 3: Growing Division and Reform, cont… Andrew Jackson Elected President in 1828 (felt he was robbed of election in 1824)Jacksonian DemocracySupport came from Southern and Western StatesHis inauguration was shocking to Washington D.C. societySpoils system: gave government jobs to party supporters. Positives and NegativesNational nominating conventions instead of closed meetings
14Section 3: Growing Division and Reform, cont… Issues During Jackson’s TermsThe Nullification Crisis1828 Tariff of AbominationsSouth Carolina threatens secessionV.P. John Calhoun (S.C.) – nullification idea / treason?Henry Clay compromise againNative American Removal1830 Indian Removal ActWorcester v. Georgia (1832)“Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it”Trail of Tears – 4000 died
15Section 3: Growing Division and Reform, cont… The Reform SpiritThe Second Great AwakeningEvangelical revivalsNew Protestant Churches: Unitarianism ,Universalism, MormonsBenevolent societiesSocial reformTemperancePrison reformEducation reformWomen’s movementAbolitionist movement
16Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis 1840’s – Oregon Trail, California Trail, Santa Fe TrailTreaty of Fort Laramie (1851)Texas gains independence (1836)Texas becomes a state (1845)Oregon becomes a territoryWar with Mexico ( )Mexico won’t sell CaliforniaPresident Polk instigates warTreaty of Guadalupe- HidalgoU.S. gains 500,000 sq. miles (California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, etc.)
17Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont… Mexican War ImpactPopular Sovereignty – citizens chooseCalifornia Gold Rush (1849)Discovery of gold led to population growth and request for statehood.Slavery issue again.Compromise of 1850Henry Clay againCalifornia free stateFugitive Slave Law adoptedSlave trade (not slavery) abolished in Washington D.C.Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
18Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont… The Fugitive Slave ActCreated deep hostility in NorthMade it difficult to gain or keep freedomUnderground RailroadHarriet Tubman & Levi CoffinUncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)Harriett Beecher StoweAroused passionate anti-slavery sentiment in the NorthMillions of copies sold
19Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont… New Territorial TroublesKansas-Nebraska Act (1854)Popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue in territoriesNebraska free/Kansas slaveBleeding KansasAnti-slavery and pro-slavery groups moved into Kansas to influence electionMarch 1856 – two governments createdPro-slavery groups began attacking anti-slavery groups
20Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont… Sectional Divisions GrowDred Scott v. Sanford (1856)Sued for his freedom since he had been taken to free territory to work for several years.Court ruled that African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not sue in courts.Also ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in territories.Violence and disagreement continued until 1861-when Kansas became a free state.
21Section 4: Manifest Destiny and Crisis, cont… John Brown’s RaidViolent anti-slavery activistMoved to Kansas to fightHe and his supporters killed 5 pro-slavery settlers1859 – He and his followers seized the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.Hoped to incite and lead a slave rebellionThe plan failed, his sons were killed in gun battle with Marines, Brown was captured, tried and sentenced to deathHero or Terrorists?