Presentation on theme: "Slavery in the territories: Lead- up to the civil war"— Presentation transcript:
1 Slavery in the territories: Lead- up to the civil war Chapter 8
2 What to do with the Mexican Cessation? Wilmot ProvisoProposed law in 1846 that all territory taken from Mexico would be free of slaveryPassed by the House, never in the Senate—never became a lawSymbolic—represented conflict over extending slavery to the territoriesSlavery in the TerritoriesNorthern Option—have Congress ban slavery in the territoriesSouthern Option—have Congress protect right to own slaves in the territoriesThird Option—Popular SovereigntyPopular SovereigntyFirst devised by Lewis Cass during the 1848 electionCongress makes no law concerning slavery, people who move to the territories vote on whether or not there will be slaveryProblems?
3 Election of 1848 Polk (D) stepped down voluntarily Democrats—Lewis CassWhigs—Zachary Taylor (war hero/general)Both major candidates were pro-slavery (or appeared that way)Third Party—Free-Soil Party—Martin Van BurenNorthern Party, anti-slaveryThose morally opposed to slaveryThose who were opposed to slavery for selfish reasonsIndustrialists (higher tariffs)Small farmers (free homesteads)Foreshadowed the creation of Republican party in 1854Taylor won 1848
4 Compromise of 1850 What to do with the Mexican territories Most thought that these issues could be put off for a while, but California Gold Rush of changed thatCalifornia ready to become a state (free state) by 1850This would upset the balance of free vs slave statesOther IssuesWhat would happen to the rest of the Mexican territories in regards to slavery?Runaway slaves and the underground railroad—South wanted to stop bothSlavery in Washington DC—becoming a problem for most NorthernersBorders for Texas—Texas wanted very large borders, opponents of slavery wanted small borders (less slave territory in US)
6 Compromise of 1850 North Got South Got California as Free State New Fugitive Slave LawSmaller Borders for TexasTexas State Debt assumed by Federal GovtSlave Trade (but not slavery) banned in Washington DCSlavery still allowed in DC New Mexico and Utah territories open to slavery through popular sovereignty
7 Compromise of 1850 (Cont.)Passed as a series of laws not as one big lawWouldn’t have passed any other way, shows how contentious the issues had becomeAlmost didn’t pass—Taylor died last minute, new President signed off on itLast major piece of legislation of Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John CalhounEffectsFree-slave balance in the Senate?ReactionNorth very upset over the fugitive slave lawSouth upset that the North was upset
8 The Demise of Manifest Destiny After 1850 many identified Manifest Destiny with Southerners who wanted to add more slave territory to the US, enough northern opposition to halt US expansion in North AmericaGadsden Purchase 1853—US bought a small piece of land from Mexico in order to build a rail road, last addition of territory to the continental US
10 Renewal of the Slavery Question: Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 BackgroundStephen A. Douglas—From Chicago, wanted a transcontinental railroad to run from Chicago to the west coastNeeded to organize the unorganized territory (old part of the Louisiana Purchase) closed to slavery from Missouri CompromiseKansas-Nebraska Act would organize that territory into the Kansas and Nebraska territoriesNeeded Southern votes—offered to open both territories to slavery via popular sovereignty (in effect repealing the Missouri Compromise)Act passed
12 Effects of Kansas Nebraska Act Further divided the North and SouthLed to the death of the Whig partySplit over the issue of slaveryLeft only one truly “national” political party—DemocratsLed to the Creation of the (modern) Republican Party in 1854Northern-only political party—only represented one half of the countryOld free-soil party + Old northern WhigsRepublican CoalitionAbolitionists (Liberty Party)Opposed to slavery for economic reasons (Free Soilers, anti-slavery Democrats)Northern business interests (old Whigs)Eventually anti-immigrant groups (old Know Nothings)Led to “Bleeding Kansas”Pro and Anti slavery forces fighting in the Kansas Territory
13 Republican Policies/Positions SlaveryNOT technically abolitionists—wanted to stop the spread of slavery, were okay with allowing slavery to remain were it already existedGet rid of popular sovereignty everywhere that it currently existed (including and especially the Kansas-Nebraska Act)Internal ImprovementsFederally financed transcontinental railroad and other railroadsFree farms for small farmers—homesteadsTariffsAdvocated high protective tariffs for US industryGovernment/ConstitutionAdvocated a broad interpretation of the ConstitutionLots of power for the federal govt, less for the states
14 Bleeding Kansas 1855 Territorial Elections 1856 Violence Pro-slavery voters from neighboring Missouri flooded the polls (illegal)Pro-slavery government illegitimately electedAnti-slavery Free Soilers established their own governmentTwo governments passed contradictory laws, competed with one another1856 ViolenceEarly 1856—Proslavery forces raid and burn down part of the Free Soil Town, LawrenceMay 1856—John Brown (vehement abolitionist) attacked/killed 5 pro- slavery men at Pottawatomie Creek in retaliation for Lawrence raidCivil war in Kansas broke out—pro and anti slavery forces fought each other until the beginning of the Civil War in 1861
15 The Dred Scott Case 1857 Background Issues Verdict Aftermath Dred Scott was a slave brought to free territory (Minnesota) by his ownerBrought back into slave territoryScott argued that the years he spent as a slave in a free territory made him freeIssuesCould a slave (or any African American) sue in US courts? Did they have any legal standing?Did living in a free territory make a slave free?Could Congress pass laws (like the Missouri Compromise) that outlawed slavery in the territories or anywhere else?VerdictScott (and all African Americans) had no legal standing in US courtsThe 5th amendment protects individual’s property from the Federal Govt., and since slaves are property Congress cannot ban slavery anywhereThe Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional (Judicial Review)AftermathMajor North-South division over the caseNortherners saw it as the South undemocratically using the court to get their waySouth saw it as the North not abiding by a decision that they disagreed with
16 Other Conflicts over Slavery Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852Incredibly popular abolitionist novelDescribed how slavery split apart slave families—made many formerly apathetic Northerners care about slavery and the fugitive slave lawMade the South upset—viewed it as a skewed and inaccurate view of slaverySumner-Brooks Affair 1856Preston Brooks (Southern Representative) attacked Charles Sumner (Northern abolitionist Senator) in CongressLincoln-Douglas Debates 1858Debated the extension of slavery into the territories, Dred Scott, Kansas- Nebraska Act, and popular sovereigntyMade Lincoln a household name as someone opposed to slavery in both the North and the South
17 John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry 1859 Brown launched a plot to start a slave revolt in the South, free the South’s slaves by force, and establish a new country somewhere in the South for freed slavesReceived some funding from a small number of extremely radical abolitionistsAttacked the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry Virginia (West Virginia) hoping to acquire more weapons for his revolt and to begin rallying slaves to his causeProblems:Not many slaves in western Virginia (mountain white territory)Townspeople surrounded Brown’s followersMarines sent in, and Brown and his followers capturedAftermath:Brown tried and executed for treason by State of VirginiaBecomes a martyr to many abolitionists in the NorthSouth is furious that Brown would be celebrated in the North, also angry that Northern abolitionists helped to fund his failed rebellion
18 Politics during the 1850sFillmore (Whig) took over from TaylorFranklin Pierce (Democrat) def. Winfield Scott (Whig)Last presidential election for the WhigsElection of 1856James Buchanan (Democrat) vs. John C. Fremont (Republican) vs. Fillmore (American Party)First presidential election for the Republican PartyFremont took most of the Northern States—narrowly lost the election to Buchanan—even though he got NO southern votesSwing of a few key states (PA, IL, IN) would give the Republicans victory in the next election
20 Election of 1860 Democrats split over the slavery issue: Northern Democrats—Stephen DouglasPopular SovereigntySouthern Democrats—John BreckenridgeSlavery everywhere (Dred Scott Case)Constitutional Union Party formed to avoid civil war—John BellAvoid Civil War—no mention of slaveryRepublicans nominated Abraham LincolnSlavery okay where it already exists, outlawed in the territoriesOther Issues: tariffs, railroad, internal improvements, homesteadsResultsLincoln swept the Northern States (except part of NJ)—won the electionBreckenridge took the deep SouthBell took the “border states”Douglas got more votes than Bell or Breckenridge but only won Missouri and part of NJ—only candidate to receive electoral votes from both free and slave states
22 Aftermath of the 1860 Election South Carolina voted to leave the Union (secede) December of 1860Six other southern states voted to secede by February of 1861(SC, FL, GA, AL, MS, LA, TX)Last chance for compromise: Crittenden CompromiseNamed after the Kentucky Senator who proposed itSeries of Constitutional amendments meant to appease the SouthAmendment protecting slavery where it existedTake the line from the Missouri Compromise and extend it across the continent—anything north of that line would be free, anything south of that line would be slaveRejected by Lincoln—never enactedSignificance? Country on verge of war, what issue are they talking about to avoid civil war?
24 The Beginning of the Civil War: Fort Sumter 7 states that left formed the Confederate States of America (CSA) in March of 1861Still no warBuchannan still President—until March 1861Federal Property Crisis and Fort SumterConfederate states began to confiscate federal property within their borders (forts, arsenals, post offices, courthouses, etc)Most federal property taken without a fightFort Sumter in Charleston harbor South Carolina—island, easily defended by Federal (Union) soldiersMarch 1861 Lincoln becomes President—still no fightingApril 1861 Confederates demand that Fort Sumter surrender, commander refuses, Confederates attack the fortFederal soldiers surrender, Civil War has begun4 more slave states join the Confederacy (Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina)4 slave states (later 5) remained in the Union (Border States)—Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, (West Virginia)
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