Presentation on theme: "The Union in Crisis U.S. History: SantaOlalla"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Union in Crisis U.S. History: SantaOlalla To view this presentation, first, turn up your volume and second, launch the self-running slide show.U.S. History: SantaOlalla
2 Table of Contents Slavery, States’ Rights, and Expansion A Rising Tide of Protest and ViolencePolitical Realignment Deepens the CrisisLincoln, Secession, and WarTo view this presentation, first, turn up your volume and second, launch the self-running slide show.
4 Positions on Slavery David Wilmot Wilmot Proviso North South “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any” lands won from MexicoNorthSeverely limited rights of free African Americans1. Abolitionists minority2. Some sympathetic to Southern plantation ownersSouthMany believed God intended that black people should provide labor for the white “civilized” society“I hold it [slavery] to be a good… and [it] will continue to prove so if not disturbed by the… spirit of abolition” John C. CalhounFor more than 20 years, Duarte has developed presentations…
5 Question How did northerners and southerners view slavery? Because northerners did not rely on slavery, many did not have strong opinions about it. Some believed that it was morally wrong. Many southerners viewed slavery as an integral part of their economy and so did not want it to end.
6 The Election of 1828: Slavery Free-Soil PartyWhigs and DemocratsSupport Wilmot ProvisoPledged to a “national platform of freedom”Martin van Buren“free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men”Won 10% of votesPopular sovereigntyDemocrat Governor Lewis CassOpposed Wilmot ProvisoWhig Zachary TaylorGeneral, heroOwned slavesWins election…to launch products,
7 What role did the Free-Soil Party play in the election of 1848? QuestionWhat role did the Free-Soil Party play in the election of 1848?Although, Van Buren, the Free-Soil Party candidate, did not win any states, he won enough votes away from Cass to cause Taylor to win
9 California 1848, gold discovered in CA Henry Clay offers a compromiseCA wanted to be admitted as a free state1849, drafted a Constitution1 year time 80,000 + people go to CA (chaotic)1848, gold discovered in CA
10 Henry Clay’s Compromise CA admitted as free stateNM and UT use popular sovereignty to decide slavery issueSlave trade- not slavery- ended in WA D.C.Congress passed strict new fugitive slave actTX give up claims to NM for $10 million
11 Question How did California statehood spark a new crisis over slavery? If California were admitted as a free state, the country would have more free states than slave states. The South feared that this shift in power would lead to a universal ban of slavery.
12 Response to Clay’s Proposal John C. Calhoun: “that the agitation on the subject of slavery would, if not prevented by some timely effective measure, end is disunion.”South less protectionIf North disagreed: South would secedeDaniel Webster: accept Clay’s compromisePopular sovereignty South comforted but slavery not spread to West
13 Compromise of 1850 Based on Clay’s proposal Calhoun and Taylor die President Millard Fillmore supported compromiseCA admitted as free statePopular sovereignty appliedTX relinquished claims of NM for $10 millionSlave trade prohibitedFugitive Slave Act added amendments
15 Resistance Against the Fugitive Slave Act Northerners enraged (not just abolitionists)Personal Liberty LawsIssue with Act1. Freedmen passed off as slaves2. Judges get higher pay when vote in favor of slave owners
18 Underground Railroad Not underground A secret network of “conductors” hid runaway slaves in farm wagons and riverboats and moved to the North or CanadaSeries of complex signals and hiding placesHarriet Tubman, “Black Moses”
19 QuestionsWhy might the Underground Railroad have been more active in free states than slave states?The Underground Railroad was more active in free states where most abolitionists lived and worked. Southern states depended on slave labor and opposed the Underground Railroad as it took their workers awayIn what ways did the Fugitive Slave Act affect free African Americans?Free African Americans were often captured and enslaved because northerners were encouraged and rewarded monetarily to turn in slaves.
20 Stowe and Delaney Condemn Slavery Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1852, published Uncle Tom’s Cabin condemned slaveryspread compassion for enslaved people in North, infuriated SouthMartin Delaney wrote BlakeSlave uprisingStowe and Delaney Condemn Slavery
21 Question How did northerners respond to the Fugitive Slave Act? Northerners responded by passing personal liberty laws and helping escaped slave remain free
22 Douglas pushes for Popular Sovereignty Senator Douglas wants new states to decide by popular sovereignty2 territories bring issue up again: Kansas-NebraskaKansas-Nebraska Act voids Missouri Compromise by allowing slavery to spread to areas that had been free for 30 years
23 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854Created potential for slavery in Kansas and Nebraska by allowing popular sovereigntyIt was sponsored by Stephen Douglas: it overturned MO Compromise meant to unite nation, but instead further divided it and led to the creation of the Republican Party
27 “Bleeding Kansas” Farmers looking for land Settlers from North and South with political motivesEach group wanted to outnumber the others in order to control governmentDeadly consequences
28 “Bleeding Kansas” 2 governments 1855, Border Ruffians (proslavery)Northern abolitionists (New England Emigrant Aid Society)1856, Topeka government petition for statehood2 governments petitioning for statehoodMay 21, 1856 Border Ruffians raid antislavery town (Lawrence, KS)John Brown retaliates (midnight execution of 5 proslavery settlers)
29 “Bleeding Kansas” Abolitionists condemn John Brown massacres “Bleeding Kansas”, throughout 1856 violent outbreaks occurred around LawrenceKansas eventually admitted as free state, 1861Violence in Senate“The Crime Against Kansas” (Charles Sumner)Sumner insults Andrew ButlerButler’s nephew, Preston Brooks attacked Sumner with cane
31 Question Why did violence break out in Kansas? People established both antislavery and proslavery governments in Kansas. Each group was determined that Kansas would enter the Union with its views entrenched in the new government.
33 The Shifting Political Scene Previously all presidents had represented all areas of the growing nationPolicies began to turn supporters away Whig PartyFillmore last Whig PresidentClay and Webster deadRelied on Winfield ScottLost to DemocratsToo much tension in party to successfully launch campaign
34 American Political Parties During 1850s Democratic Party1800-PresentOpposed strong central governmentDivided over slavery issue in 1850sWhig PartyFavored national economic developmentOpposed Andrew JacksonAntislavery members left in 1850sKnow-Nothings (The American Party)Opposed to immigrationJoined by Antislavery WhigsTook a proslavery platform in 1856Free-Soil PartyWorked to prevent slavery in the western territoriesFormed by antislavery Democrats and WhigsAbsorbed into the new Republican PartyRepublican Party1854-PresentOpposed to slaveryOpposed to Kansas-Nebraska Act
35 QuestionHow did the rise and fall of political parties reflect divisions in the United States?Political parties emerged in support of or opposition to issues that divided Americans
36 Sectional Division Intensified Election of 1856Republican John C. Frémont war hero“Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men, Frémont”Democrat James BuchananStop the “agitation of the slavery issue”Know-Nothings former President Millard Fillmore
37 Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court, 1857 MO slave Dred Scott Chief Justice Roger B. TaneyCourt ruled against ScottProperty cannot sueSouth celebratedNorth alarmedFrederick Douglass thinks this will speed up the process of abolition
38 What were the reactions to the Dred Scott decision? QuestionWhat were the reactions to the Dred Scott decision?Many southerners celebrated the decision while many northerners were outraged by it.
39 Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 “Honest Abe”Opposed Kansas-Nebraska ActAttacked popular sovereignty as wrongWon a large support group due to debates“Little Giant”Sincerity questionedSupported annexation of TXPromoted popular sovereigntyWon election
40 Question How did Lincoln and Douglas differ on the issue of slavery? Lincoln wanted to end slavery. Douglas believed that each state should decide whether to be a free or slave state.
41 Violence = best way to avenge the evil of slavery Angel of GodViolence = best way to avenge the evil of slaverySolicited recruits and funds for armed assaultHarper’s Ferry, VAHubs of trains and canals for escape routes
42 Execution of John Brown “Robert E. Lee came and took a stand. "This lawlessness won't be tolerated let's punish those who collaborated" After my trial I was put to death but opinions were when I took my last breath a hero to some, others said what for? My actions pushed the nation to war.” MC LaLa
43 Reactions to Execution of John Brown Northerners thought abolitionist activism had gone too farOthers saw Brown as courageous martyrLincoln and other Republicans condemned BrownDouglas accused Republicans of instigating attack by BrownMany others prepared for war
45 Issues at Hand in Election of 1860 Debate over Kansas decision on slaveryDred Scott Decision of Supreme CourtFugitive Slave ActStates’ rights
46 Resolution MS Senator, Jefferson Davis resolution Congress adopt resolutions restricting federal control over slavery in territoriesStates also cannot interfere in pre-existing slave statesIssue of survival of UnionDivided nationNorth would not vote for a President from the South (vice versa)
47 Slavery not allowed in the territories John Bell Const’l Unionist Abraham LincolnRepublicanIllinoisPlatform:Slavery not allowed in the territoriesStephen DouglasNorthern DemocratPlatform: popular sovereignty should decide the issue of slavery in the territories when they become statesJohn BellConst’l UnionistTennesseeThe federal government should support slavery and also defend the UnionJohn BreckinridgeSouthern DemocratKentuckyThe federal government must protect slavery
50 Lincoln Wins40% of popular vote60% electoral votesDidn’t receive a single vote from South
51 QuestionHow did Lincoln’s election reflect the break between the North and the South?Lincoln’s election reflected the break between the North and the South because he won without receiving a single southern electoral vote.
52 Union Collapses“The union now subsisting between South Carolina and the other states, under the name of the ‘United States of America,’ is hereby dissolved”Reason for leaving: the election of a President “whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery”6 other southern states follow secessionSlave-dependent, cotton-growing states stepped together
54 Confederacy Formed7 seceding states formed Confederate States of AmericaFramed a ConstitutionStressed independence of each stateImplied states had right to secedeGuaranteed protection of slaveryProhibited importing new slaves (appease Britain and France)Not all southerners agreed with secession
55 Final CompromiseJohn Crittenden proposed constitutional amendment (Crittenden Compromise)Allowed slavery in western territories south of MO Compromise lineCalled for federal funds to reimburse slaveholders for unreturned fugitives
56 Long-Term Causes of the Civil War Sectional economic and cultural differencesDebate over expansion of slavery into territoriesPolitical compromise failed to ease sectional differencesMO Compromise 1820Compromise 1850Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
57 Long Term Causes of the Civil War Laws and court decisions increased sectional tensionFugitive Slave Act 1850Dred Scott DecisionTariff policyGrowth of antislavery movementUncle Tom’s Cabin
58 Short-Term Causes of the Civil War Kansas-Nebraska Act splits political partiesBreakdown of party system3. Lincoln elected President4. S.C. seceded from Union
59 Civil War Begins March 4, 1861, Lincoln sworn in When southern states seceded seized federal forts and arsenals within their borders (Fort Sumter)Guarded harbor at Charleston, SCLincoln sent supplies to fort, food only (no arms)Troops ran out of ammunition South fired upon fort Fort Sumter fell
60 What events led to the outbreak of the war? QuestionWhat events led to the outbreak of the war?When President Lincoln sent supplies to Fort Sumter, the Confederates attacked and took control of the fort. As a result, President Lincoln ordered volunteers to fight the Confederacy.