Presentation on theme: "U.S. History: SantaOlalla Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any” lands won from Mexico North."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. History: SantaOlalla
Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any” lands won from Mexico North Severely limited rights of free African Americans 1. Abolitionists minority 2. Some sympathetic to Southern plantation owners South Many believed God intended that black people should provide labor for the white “civilized” society “I hold it [slavery] to be a good… and [it] will continue to prove so if not disturbed by the… spirit of abolition” John C. Calhoun
Question How did northerners and southerners view slavery? –Because northerners did not rely on slavery, many did not have strong opinions about it. Some believed that it was morally wrong. Many southerners viewed slavery as an integral part of their economy and so did not want it to end.
The Election of 1828: Slavery Free-Soil Party Support Wilmot Proviso Pledged to a “national platform of freedom” Martin van Buren “free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men” Won 10% of votes Whigs and Democrats Popular sovereignty Democrat Governor Lewis Cass –Opposed Wilmot Proviso Whig Zachary Taylor –General, hero –Owned slaves –Wins election
Question What role did the Free-Soil Party play in the election of 1848? –Although, Van Buren, the Free-Soil Party candidate, did not win any states, he won enough votes away from Cass to cause Taylor to win
California Henry Clay offers a compromise CA wanted to be admitted as a free state 1849, drafted a Constitution 1 year time 80,000 + people go to CA (chaotic) 1848, gold discovered in CA
Henry Clay’s Compromise CA admitted as free state NM and UT use popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue Slave trade- not slavery- ended in WA D.C. Congress passed strict new fugitive slave act TX give up claims to NM for $10 million
Question How did California statehood spark a new crisis over slavery? –If California were admitted as a free state, the country would have more free states than slave states. The South feared that this shift in power would lead to a universal ban of slavery.
Response to Clay’s Proposal John C. Calhoun: “that the agitation on the subject of slavery would, if not prevented by some timely effective measure, end is disunion.” –South less protection –If North disagreed: South would secede Daniel Webster: accept Clay’s compromise –Popular sovereignty South comforted but slavery not spread to West
Compromise of 1850 Based on Clay’s proposal Calhoun and Taylor die President Millard Fillmore supported compromise –CA admitted as free state –Popular sovereignty applied –TX relinquished claims of NM for $10 million –Slave trade prohibited –Fugitive Slave Act added amendments
Resistance Against the Fugitive Slave Act Northerners enraged (not just abolitionists) Personal Liberty Laws Issue with Act –1. Freedmen passed off as slaves –2. Judges get higher pay when vote in favor of slave owners
Underground Railroad Not underground A secret network of “conductors” hid runaway slaves in farm wagons and riverboats and moved to the North or Canada Series of complex signals and hiding places Harriet Tubman, “Black Moses”
Questions Why might the Underground Railroad have been more active in free states than slave states? –The Underground Railroad was more active in free states where most abolitionists lived and worked. Southern states depended on slave labor and opposed the Underground Railroad as it took their workers away In what ways did the Fugitive Slave Act affect free African Americans? –Free African Americans were often captured and enslaved because northerners were encouraged and rewarded monetarily to turn in slaves.
Stowe and Delaney Condemn Slavery Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1852, published Uncle Tom’s Cabin condemned slavery –spread compassion for enslaved people in North, infuriated South Martin Delaney wrote Blake –Slave uprising
Question How did northerners respond to the Fugitive Slave Act? Northerners responded by passing personal liberty laws and helping escaped slave remain free
Douglas pushes for Popular Sovereignty Senator Douglas wants new states to decide by popular sovereignty 2 territories bring issue up again: Kansas- Nebraska Kansas-Nebraska Act voids Missouri Compromise by allowing slavery to spread to areas that had been free for 30 years
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Created potential for slavery in Kansas and Nebraska by allowing popular sovereignty It was sponsored by Stephen Douglas: it overturned MO Compromise meant to unite nation, but instead further divided it and led to the creation of the Republican Party
Missouri Compromise, 1820
Compromise of 1850
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
“Bleeding Kansas” Farmers looking for land Settlers from North and South with political motives –Each group wanted to outnumber the others in order to control government –Deadly consequences
“Bleeding Kansas” 2 governments –1855, Border Ruffians (proslavery) –Northern abolitionists (New England Emigrant Aid Society) 1856, Topeka government petition for statehood –2 governments petitioning for statehood May 21, 1856 Border Ruffians raid antislavery town (Lawrence, KS) –John Brown retaliates (midnight execution of 5 proslavery settlers)
“Bleeding Kansas” Abolitionists condemn John Brown massacres “Bleeding Kansas”, throughout 1856 violent outbreaks occurred around Lawrence Kansas eventually admitted as free state, 1861 Violence in Senate –“–“The Crime Against Kansas” (Charles Sumner) –S–Sumner insults Andrew Butler Butler’s nephew, Preston Brooks attacked Sumner with cane
Brooks beats Sumner with Cane
Question Why did violence break out in Kansas? People established both antislavery and proslavery governments in Kansas. Each group was determined that Kansas would enter the Union with its views entrenched in the new government.
The Shifting Political Scene Previously all presidents had represented all areas of the growing nation Policies began to turn supporters away Whig Party Fillmore last Whig President Clay and Webster dead Relied on Winfield Scott –Lost to Democrats –Too much tension in party to successfully launch campaign
American Political Parties During 1850s American Political Parties Democratic Party 1800-Present Opposed strong central government Divided over slavery issue in 1850s Whig Party Favored national economic development Opposed Andrew Jackson Antislavery members left in 1850s Know-Nothings (The American Party) Opposed to immigration Joined by Antislavery Whigs Took a proslavery platform in 1856 Free-Soil Party Worked to prevent slavery in the western territories Formed by antislavery Democrats and Whigs Absorbed into the new Republican Party Republican Party 1854-Present Opposed to slavery Opposed to Kansas-Nebraska Act
Question How did the rise and fall of political parties reflect divisions in the United States? Political parties emerged in support of or opposition to issues that divided Americans
Sectional Division Intensified Election of 1856 –Republican John C. Frémont war hero “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men, Frémont” –Democrat James Buchanan Stop the “agitation of the slavery issue” –Know-Nothings former President Millard Fillmore
Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court, 1857 MO slave Dred Scott Chief Justice Roger B. Taney Court ruled against Scott –Property cannot sue South celebrated North alarmed –Frederick Douglass thinks this will speed up the process of abolition
Question What were the reactions to the Dred Scott decision? Many southerners celebrated the decision while many northerners were outraged by it.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 Lincoln “Honest Abe” Opposed Kansas- Nebraska Act Attacked popular sovereignty as wrong Won a large support group due to debates Douglas “Little Giant” Sincerity questioned Supported annexation of TX Promoted popular sovereignty Won election
Question How did Lincoln and Douglas differ on the issue of slavery? Lincoln wanted to end slavery. Douglas believed that each state should decide whether to be a free or slave state.
Angel of God Violence = best way to avenge the evil of slavery Solicited recruits and funds for armed assault Harper’s Ferry, VA –Hubs of trains and canals for escape routes
Execution of John Brown “Robert E. Lee came and took a stand. "This lawlessness won't be tolerated let's punish those who collaborated" After my trial I was put to death but opinions were when I took my last breath a hero to some, others said what for? My actions pushed the nation to war.” MC LaLa
Reactions to Execution of John Brown Northerners thought abolitionist activism had gone too far Others saw Brown as courageous martyr Lincoln and other Republicans condemned Brown Douglas accused Republicans of instigating attack by Brown Many others prepared for war
Issues at Hand in Election of 1860 Debate over Kansas decision on slavery Dred Scott Decision of Supreme Court Fugitive Slave Act States’ rights
Resolution MS Senator, Jefferson Davis resolution –Congress adopt resolutions restricting federal control over slavery in territories –States also cannot interfere in pre-existing slave states Issue of survival of Union –Divided nation –North would not vote for a President from the South (vice versa)
Abraham Lincoln Republican Illinois Platform: Slavery not allowed in the territories Stephen Douglas Northern Democrat Illinois Platform: popular sovereignty should decide the issue of slavery in the territories when they become states John Bell Const’l Unionist Tennessee Platform: The federal government should support slavery and also defend the Union John Breckinridge Southern Democrat Kentucky Platform: The federal government must protect slavery
Breckinridge Bell Douglas
Lincoln Wins Election
Lincoln Wins 40% of popular vote 60% electoral votes Didn’t receive a single vote from South
Question How did Lincoln’s election reflect the break between the North and the South? Lincoln’s election reflected the break between the North and the South because he won without receiving a single southern electoral vote.
Union Collapses “The union now subsisting between South Carolina and the other states, under the name of the ‘United States of America,’ is hereby dissolved” –Reason for leaving: the election of a President “whose opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery” –6 other southern states follow secession –Slave-dependent, cotton-growing states stepped together
Confederacy Formed 7 seceding states formed Confederate States of America –Framed a Constitution –Stressed independence of each state –Implied states had right to secede –Guaranteed protection of slavery –Prohibited importing new slaves (appease Britain and France) Not all southerners agreed with secession
Final Compromise John Crittenden proposed constitutional amendment (Crittenden Compromise) –Allowed slavery in western territories south of MO Compromise line –Called for federal funds to reimburse slaveholders for unreturned fugitives
Long-Term Causes of the Civil War Sectional economic and cultural differences Debate over expansion of slavery into territories Political compromise failed to ease sectional differences –MO Compromise 1820 –Compromise 1850 –Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
Long Term Causes of the Civil War Laws and court decisions increased sectional tension –Fugitive Slave Act 1850 –Dred Scott Decision –Tariff policy Growth of antislavery movement Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Short-Term Causes of the Civil War 1.Kansas-Nebraska Act splits political parties 2.Breakdown of party system 3. Lincoln elected President 4. S.C. seceded from Union
Civil War Begins March 4, 1861, Lincoln sworn in When southern states seceded seized federal forts and arsenals within their borders (Fort Sumter) –Guarded harbor at Charleston, SC Lincoln sent supplies to fort, food only (no arms) –Troops ran out of ammunition South fired upon fort Fort Sumter fell
Question What events led to the outbreak of the war? When President Lincoln sent supplies to Fort Sumter, the Confederates attacked and took control of the fort. As a result, President Lincoln ordered volunteers to fight the Confederacy.