Stowe and Helper 1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe –Angered by Fugitive Slave Act –2 nd Great Awakening –International popularity 1857: The Impending Crisis by Hinton R. Helper –Effects on non-slaveholding whites
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811–1896), Daguerreotype by Southworth and Hawes, “The Book That Made This Great War” Lincoln’s celebrated remark to author Harriet Beecher Stowe reflected the enormous emotional impact of her impassioned novel.
Battle for Kansas Popular sovereignty= call to action Henry Ward Beecher and New England Emigrant Aid Company South=angry Kansas-Nebraska Act meant to make Kansas slave! 1855 election for territorial legislature- border ruffians Shawnee Mission vs. Topeka= who’s in charge?
Bleeding Kansas, 1854–1860 “Enter every election district in Kansas... and vote at the point of a bowie knife or revolver,” one proslavery agitator exhorted a Missouri crowd. Proslavery Missouri senator David Atchison declared that “there are 1,100 men coming over from Platte County to vote, and if that ain’t enough we can send 5,000—enough to kill every Goddamned abolitionist in the Territory.”
Bleeding Kansas 1856 free soil town of Lawrence burned John Brown- Osawatomie to Pottawatomie Pottawatomie Creek in May 1856 –5 killed (proslavery?) –Bleeding Kansas= civil war in Kansas! Lecompton Constitution 1857 free soilers avoided polls –Buchanan supported, Douglas= real popular sovereignty division in Democratic party
Brooks Attacks Sumner 1856 Senator Charles Sumner –South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler Congressman Preston Brooks insulted May 22, 1856: Brooks attacks Sumner House couldn’t expel Brooks, resigned and reelected! Sumner’s speech sold tens of thousands
Presidential Election of 1856 (electoral vote by state)
Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott= slave in Illinois and Wisconsin in 1857 –Sued for freedom –Supreme Court ruled not a citizen –Chief Justice Taney to undermine free soilers –Slaves= private property (5 th amendment) –Missouri Compromise= unconstitutional! –Can’t deny slavery even with popular sovereignty! –Democrats split, antislaveryites ignored decision
Lincoln vs. Douglas 1858 Senatorial elections in Illinois Stephen Douglas (Dem) vs. Abraham Lincoln (Rep) Douglas challenged to 7 debates (Lincoln-Douglas Debates) Freeport Doctrine- popular sovereignty vs. SC decision? –Douglas= if people don’t want it, it won’t happen
Lincoln vs. Douglas Douglas elected Senator (indirect election by state legislature) Lincoln became a national name Douglas= presidential bid squashed (against Lecompton Constitution and Freeport Doctrine) Democratic party split North vs. South
John Brown Moved to Virginia October 1859 Plan= attack federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry+ slave revolt 7 innocent people killed, 10 injured Robert E. Lee and Marines Brown convicted of murder and treason insane? Execution= martyred, South= angry
Election of 1860 Democratic Convention at Charleston –Southerners against Douglas, walked out Democratic Convention at Baltimore –Douglas nominated by Northern Dems. –John C. Breckinridge nominated by Southern Democrats –Constitutional Union Party= moderate Democrats with John Bell
Presidential Election of 1860: Electoral Vote by State (top) and Popular Vote by County (bottom)
Election of 1860 Republican Convention at Chicago –Seward= too divisive, Lincoln nominated –Platform geared toward all Northerners –South declared a victory for Lincoln=secession –Lincoln won with 180 electoral votes, election split perfectly between N and S
Secession December 1860: South Carolina Within 6 weeks, 6 more states seceded (4 more to secede later) February 1861: Confederate States of America (CSA) –Jefferson Davis: president Lincoln stuck in lame duck time!
Southern Opposition to Secession, 1860–1861 (showing vote by county) This county vote shows the opposition of the antiplanter, antislavery mountain whites in the Appalachian region. There was also considerable resistance to secession in Texas, where Governor Sam Houston, who led the Unionists, was deposed by secessionists.
Jefferson Davis (1808–1889), President of the Confederacy
Compromise? Crittenden Amendments (James Henry Crittenden of Kentucky) –36°30’= no slavery north –South of 36°30’= federal protection of slavery (including future territories) –When statehood came, all territories could choose –Lincoln rejected compromise
Reasons for Secession 11 Southern states seceded –North= more populous= power –Feared Republican party –Sick of free soilers and abolitionists –Secession would be peaceful economic ties between North and South –Secession= opportunity, right to self determination (linked to Revolution!) –Had voluntarily entered Union, now leaving