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Chapter 21 The Collapse of the Union: From Debate to Violence 1854–1861.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 The Collapse of the Union: From Debate to Violence 1854–1861."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 The Collapse of the Union: From Debate to Violence 1854–1861

2 Bleeding Kansas Kansas Slave or free? Increases sectional controversy Free-soilers and border ruffians Anti-slavery groups aid emigration to Kansas Fewer southerners emigrate to Kansas “Border ruffians” from Missouri worsen crisis Border ruffians shoot up and burn Lawrence John Brown kills group of proslavery settlers Extremists on both sides no longer rational

3 Bleeding Kansas Bleeding Kansas (cont.’d) Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks Sumner insults South Carolina in Senate Congressman Brooks canes Sumner in Senate Southerners honor Brooks Massachusetts honors Sumner Fugitive Slave Act angers North South pleased with act at first Underground Railroad extended to Canada by 1856 North resistance continued

4 A Hardening of the Lines Election of 1856 Democrats run James Buchanan Buchanan free from taint of Bleeding Kansas Republicans choose John C. Frémont Buchanan wins, especially in the South Dred Scott Scott a slave who lived in free territory Scott sues for freedom Dred Scott v. Sanford reaches Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney Scott not a citizen, could not sue Missouri Compromise unconstitutional Slavery cannot be forbidden in territories

5 A Hardening of the Lines A Hardening of the Lines (cont.’d) Republican Panic Dred Scott decision outrages Republicans Dred Scott decision kills popular sovereignty Kansas asks to become a slave state Anti-slavery forces gain support 1858 Illinois Senate election Democrat Stephen Douglas vs. Republican Abraham Lincoln Debate Dred Scott decision; popular sovereignty Douglas: territories keep out slavery by not passing slave codes Douglas wins the race

6 A Hardening of the Lines A Hardening of the Lines (cont.’d) John Brown’s Insurrection Brown gains support from a few abolitionists Plans guerrilla-style slave insurrection Plans to begin with attack on Harper’s Ferry Brown captures Harper’s Ferry arsenal Robert E. Lee captures Brown Brown tried for treason; hung Some abolitionists honor Brown as martyr Many Southerners hysterical in reaction

7 The Election of 1860 Democrats split Northern Democrats run Stephen Douglas Southern Democrats run John C. Breckinridge Republicans decide for moderate Republicans nominate Lincoln Lincoln opposes slavery in territories Republican platform comprehensive Fourth party enters race Constitutional Unionists Run John Bell

8 The Election of 1860 The Election of 1860 (cont.’d) Republican Victory Lincoln gains 40% popular vote Lincoln wins in electoral college Most Americans want settlement South Carolina fire-eaters demand secession South Carolina secedes December 20, 1680 Deep South follows Buchanan unable to shape compromise

9 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map of Presidential Election of 1860

10 The Confederacy Crittenden Compromise Proposed extension of 36º 30’ John Tyler proposed constitutional amendment Lincoln cannot accept slavery in territories Compromises fail Confederate States of America Seven states of deep South Montgomery original capital Constitution similar to that of U.S. Constitution protects slavery

11 Map of Southern Secession

12 The Confederacy The Confederacy (cont.’d) President Jefferson of CSA Model slave owner; not fire-eater Cold personality, irritable, inflexible Lacks self-confidence Surrounds himself with yes-men President Abraham Lincoln of United States Knows value of unity, competency Appoints rivals to cabinet Brunt of jokes, criticism Sharp native intelligence, humble

13 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 22:1 The Legal Status of Slavery 1787–1861

14 The Confederacy The Confederacy (cont.’d) A war of nerves Two Southern forts in U.S. hands Davis willing to let status quo stand for moment Lincoln decides to re-supply forts without force Confederates fire, beginning April 12, 1861 Border states Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas join CSA Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri stay with Union West Virginia secedes from Virginia

15 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 22:3 Crittenden’s Compromise Plan 1861

16 Discussion Questions In what ways was “Bleeding Kansas” a preview of the Civil War? Did Kansas’s people want to be a free or slave state? Examine the Dred Scott Decision. Was the court’s decision constitutionally sound? Was it right? Was John Brown an American hero or a murdering traitor? Why? What were the events after November 1860 that sparked the Civil War? Was there any way to avoid the conflict at that late stage?


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