Presentation on theme: "Slavery, Politics, and Westward Expansion Political Strife Between North and South from 1819 up to the Election of 1860."— Presentation transcript:
Slavery, Politics, and Westward Expansion Political Strife Between North and South from 1819 up to the Election of 1860
Missouri Crisis Northern concern over the growing “slave power” Populations in slave areas seem to be growing faster than in free areas. Missouri’s statehood threatens an imbalance between free and slave states.
Missouri Crisis Congress arrives at a political compromise with 3 parts: –Maine added as 12th free state –Missouri added as 12th slave state –Agreement on the “Missouri Compromise Line” of no slavery in the Louisiana Purchase above 36 30’
Missouri Crisis Why would southerners have been satisfied with the Missouri Compromise when so little additional land fell below the 36 30’ line? Are Maine and Missouri wholly equal?
Annexation of Texas Texas had been settled largely by southerners who brought with them slavery - particularly into Eastern Texas Mexico had outlawed slavery with its independence from Spain Texas independence in 1836 reestablished slavery as the law of the land
Annexation of Texas The annexation of Texas as a state became the political issue of the early 1840s and the central factor in the Presidential election of 1844 Southern Democrats used the political issue of Texas to damage the hopes of their political rivals, the Whigs.
Annexation of Texas Southern Democrats play up fears that Texas will fall under the protection of England or France if the U.S. fails to act –Such an action would lead to the abolition of slavery in Texas –Abolition in Texas would be perceived as a grave threat to slavery in neighboring southern states
Republic of Texas, 1844
Annexation of Texas Pro-Texas candidate James K. Polk of Tennessee emerges as the Democratic Presidential candidate in 1844 Henry Clay runs as the Whig candidate and proposes vague measures toward Texas annexation
Election of 1844: Polk vs. Clay James K. Polk of Tennessee Democrat Henry Clay of Kentucky Whig
Annexation of Texas In the election of 1844, region and slavery often trump loyalty to political party Texas and slavery drown out all other political issues Polk wins big
Mexican War Once President, Polk takes a more expansive view of western expansion. Has eyes on California Provokes Mexicans into war.
Mexican War: Northern Opposition War is enormously unpopular in the North Northerners again feel as though they have been pulled into a war they do not want by a southern president and the political power of slavery Northerners believe the war is only about expanding slavery
Mexican War: Northern Opposition Among the most vocal opponents are the Transcendentalists and northern intellectuals like Henry David Thoreau
Mexican War: Opposition Wilmot Proviso - proposed but never passed - would prohibit the expansion of slavery into any territory gained by the war. Proposed by David Wilmot, a northern Democrat from Pennsylvania Debate again divides Congress into North vs. South.
Mexican War: A Southerner’s War Southern officers & men fight overwhelmingly in Mexican War Victories greeted with enthusiasm in the South
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo After suffering a humiliating defeat, the Mexicans sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding present-day California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico
Zachary Taylor The Whigs luck-out in the election of 1848: They recruit a slaveholding Louisiana planter and hero of the Mexican War as their candidate -- Zachary Taylor The election is not even close Southerners feel reassured that Taylor will protect their interests in the new territories
: California The discovery of gold in California in 1849 leads to a huge increase in population California will apply for statehood Some slaveholders go to California, but slavery does not have enough time to become established
: California Like Missouri had thirty years earlier, California’s admission as a free state threatens the balance of power in Washington D.C.
: The “Fire-Eaters” Zachary Taylor, the southern Whig President, goes against his region and supports California’s admission as a free state The “Fire-Eaters” - Southerners enraged at Taylor and the prohibition of slavery in California meet in Nashville to discuss secession
The Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay promotes his last great compromise in 1850 The Compromise has these four components: –Admission of California as free state –Outlawing of slave trade in D. C. –A strong Fugitive Slave Act –Slavery in Utah and New Mexico territories to be decided by residents
Fugitive Slave Act The Fugitive Slave Act compelled law enforcement in northern states to cooperate with the returning of escaped slaves Gives slave catchers federal authority Backfires on South: Turns thousands of northerners against slavery and the South
Fugitive Slave Act The Fugitive Slave Act compelled many northerners to take a stand against slavery Saw the evil in their midst Felt loss of sovereignty
Railroads and the Gadsden Purchase Even significant economic and internal improvement issues began to split along sectional lines The debate over the northern vs. southern routes for the transcontinental railroad reflected this divide Jefferson Davis as Secretary of War allows for the Gadsden Purchase - making a southern route plausible
Railroads and the Gadsden Purchase
Kansas-Nebraska Act The debate over the addition of Kansas will render the Missouri Compromise line of 36 30’ null and void.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas and “popular sovereignty” Occupants of Kansas will decide the fate of slavery in their future state Douglas trying to build his image as a national political figure - a moderate voice
Birth of Republican Party The Republican Party emerges out of opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Dominated by Free-Soilers, but includes abolitionists Will be a strictly northern party
“Bleeding Kansas” Election violence erupts in Kansas over slavery referendum “Popular Sovereignty” leads to a bloodbath and a preview of the Civil War
“Bleeding Kansas” Emergence of John Brown
The Caning of Sumner Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivers his “Crime against Kansas” speech Preston Brooks, a Representative from South Carolina canes Sumner senseless in the Senate chamber
The Caning of Sumner
Dred Scott The Supreme Court rules on the case of Dred Scott vs. Sandford Refuses to intervene on behalf of Scott, a slave brought to Minnesota Recognizes slaves as property, even in free states Declares that blacks are not citizens and slaves cannot sue for freedom
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln of Illinois challenges Douglas to a series of debates about “popular sovereignty” Lincoln unable to deliver a majority to the Republicans in the Illinois statehouse, but makes a national reputation
John Brown’s Raid John Brown’s raid on the Harper’s Ferry Arsenal is a flop, but it gets people excited Brown, a true nut, becomes a hero and martyr to anti-slavery forces
The Election of 1860 The election of 1860 provided the last phase of the sectional crisis over slavery and led America into the secession crisis.