2How did the issue of slavery affect politics in the United States? Essential QuestionHow did the issue of slavery affect politics in the United States?
3I. Debate over Slavery 1820 – Missouri Compromise – Henry Clay Maine = Free StateMissouri = Slave StateLine at ’North of the line = FREESouth of the Line = SLAVE
4New Land Renews Slave Disputes Additional lands from the Mexican American War cause bitter debate over slavery and keeping equal free and slave statesPopular Sovereignty: political power belongs to the people – let them decide slavery issueWilmont Proviso: document stating that slavery should not exist in lands obtained from Mexican American War – did not pass Senate
5SectionalismFavoring the interests of one section or region over the interests of the entire country
6The California Question Gold rush caused huge population growth in California – applied for statehoodCalifornia opposes slavery – would upset balance of free and slave states
7Compromise of 1850 3 Major Players: Henry Clay: John Calhoun: Known as “The Great Compromiser”John Calhoun:Southerner who wanted slavery and threatened secessionDaniel Webster:Northerner who pleaded for national unity
8Compromise of 1850 1 – California would enter as a free state 2 – Popular sovereignty would be used to decide slavery in Mexican Cession land3 – Texas gives up lands east of Rio Grande – receives money from federal government4 – Slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C. (slavery still legal)5 – Fugitive Slave Act
9Fugitive Slave Act1850Denied escaped slaves to have a trial or testifyHelping a slave = $1000 fine and 6 months in jail$10 for every African American “suspected of escape” in the North brought back to the South
10Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Dramatic tale about a loyal slave beaten to death by his owner, Simon LegreePresented slavery as a horrible evil and changed people’s viewsSoutherners felt it was full of lies
11II. Trouble in Kansas Franklin Pierce elected President in 1852 From New HampshireLittle knownPromised to support Compromise of 1850 and Fugitive Slave Act
12Kansas – Nebraska Act1854Illinois senator, Stephen Douglas, wanted to organize Kansas and Nebraska territories in order to build a transcontinental railroad across the countryNeeding southern support for the act, Douglas allowed Kansas and Nebraska to decide by popular sovereignty the issue of slavery
13“Bleeding Kansas” Pro and Anti slavery supporters rush to Kansas Pro-slavery Missourians illegally vote in Kansas for pro-slave government“Sack of Lawrence” – an anti-slavery town burned by pro-slavery people in 1856
14John BrownJohn Brown, a radical anti-slavery settler, butchers five pro-slavery men at Pottowatomie Creek as a response to LawrenceCalled “Pottowatomie Massacre”Civil war in Kansas
15VIOLENCE IN THE SENATEIn May, 1856, Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner gives a speech attacking slave holders for the situation in KansasSouth Carolina representative Preston Brooks beat Sumner over the head with a cane – Sumner did not return to the Senate for two more years
16III. Political Divisions Republican Party: a political party united against the spread of slavery – 1854Democrat James Buchanan elected President in 1856
17Dred Scott DecisionDred Scott was the slave of a Missouri army surgeon, who had taken him to Illinois and Wisconsin to live for a few yearsIn 1846, Scott claimed in court that since he lived on free soil, he should be a free manWhat did the Court decide?3 key issues:Was Scott a citizen?Does living on free soil make you free?Is it constitutional to prohibit slavery in federal territories?
18Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney – "It is difficult at this day to realize the state of public opinion in regard to that unfortunate race which prevailed in the civilized and enlightened portions of the world at the time of the Declaration of Independence, and when the Constitution of the United States was framed and adopted; but the public history of every European nation displays it in a manner too plain to be mistaken. They had for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations, and so far unfit that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect."
19Lincoln Douglas Debates In 1858, Abraham Lincoln ran against Stephen Douglas for the Illinois Senate seat
20Lincoln Douglas Debates Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates – the issue of slavery, Dred Scott Decision, and condition of the countryFreeport Doctrine: Douglas believed the police would enforce the voters’ decision if it contradicted the Supreme Court’s decision in the Dred Scott caseResults: Douglas narrowly defeats Lincoln, but Lincoln becomes a national figure and ready to run for President in 1860
21John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry October 16, 1859, John Brown appeared in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, with 21 followers to seize the military arsenalPlan: To give weapons to escaped slaves to ignite a slave revolt
22John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry Colonel Robert E. Lee led a force of Marines to capture BrownVirginia convicts Brown of treason and hangs him 6 weeks laterBrown becomes a martyr to the abolitionist cause – South feels North will do anything to destroy slavery“John Brown’s Body” becomes a song
23Election of 1860 Candidates Republican: Abraham Lincoln Northern Democrat: Stephen DouglasSouthern Democrat: John BreckinridgeConstitutional Union: John BellLincoln wins with only 40% of the popular vote – becomes the first Republican president
24The South SecedesAfter Lincoln’s election, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas secede (break away) from the Union and form the Confederate States of AmericaJefferson Davis, Senator from Mississippi, elected President of the Confederacy
25Lincoln Takes OfficeLincoln pleads with the South to reunite the Union – no need for bloodshed or violence“We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.”Fort Sumter – a federal fort in South Carolina – was running short of suppliesLincoln says that a ship coming down to the fort only has food – no weapons or soldiers!Confederate President Jefferson Davis decides that fort protects Charleston (an important city) and must not stay in Northern/federal hands