2Features of Industrialized Democracies Representative systems of government based on regular, fair, secret and competitive electionsWell-defined, consistent, and predictable political institutions and processesA high degree of public loyalty to the stateProtection of individual rights under the law
3Features, continuedA variety of institutionalized forms of political participation and representation, including multiple political parties with a variety of platforms.A belief in human equalityAn active, effective, and protected opposition and respect for freedom of speech
4Features, continuedPostindustrial, wealthy and free-market economic systems based mainly on services and industry, driving the world’s biggest multinational corporationsHigh levels of urbanization, with advanced infrastructureAdvanced technologySignificant regional & global influence
5Features, continuedA relatively high quality of life when measured by the provision of education, health care, and other basic servicesHigh ratings on the Freedom House, Economic Freedom, and Human Development indexes
7Thinking About Democracy The BasicsRightsCompetitive electionsThe Rule of LawCivil Society and Civic CultureCapitalism and AffluenceWhich countries are democracies by those criteria?
8What Political Institutions Does Large-Scale Democracy Require? 1. Elected Officials2. Free, fair, and frequent elections3. Freedom of expression4. Alternative sources of information5. Associational autonomy6. Inclusive citizenshipFrom Robert A. Dahl, Political Science Quarterly, Summer 2005
9Why the Institutions Are Necessary Institutions Democratic values / criteria1. Elected representatives Effective participationControl of the agenda2. Fair, free & frequent elections Voting equality3. Freedom of Expression Effective participationEnlightened understanding
10Why the Institutions Are Necessary 4. Alternative information Effective participationEnlightened understandingControl of the agenda5. Associational autonomy Effective participation6. Inclusive citizenship Full inclusion
11Varieties of Democracy ConsolidatedCalled “substantive democracy” in AP briefing paperTransitionalCalled “procedural democracy” in AP briefing paper
12Consolidated Democracy Relative consistent adherence to all of the democratic principles and valuesBeyond free, competitive elections with universal suffrageFreedom of the press = multiple sources of informationFreedom of organization and robust civil societyEqual treatment of minorities
13Transitional Democracy Facades of democratic institutionsInformal practices violate the principles of democracyDemocratic forms of governance coexist with a persistence of authoritarian elements (“hybrids”)Corruption, control of media, no independent judiciary, opposition undermined including use of intimidation and violence
14Democratization Process of transformation From nondemocratic to Transitional/procedural democracy toConsolidated/substantive democracy
15The Origins of the Democratic State Evolution of democratic thoughtHobbesLaissez-faireLockeSuffrage
17The Origins of the Democratic State Building Democraciesthe creation of the state itselfthe role of religion in society and governmentthe development of pressures for democracythe industrial revolutioncomplications of cleavagesCold War as solidifier of strong democracies
18Challenges for Democracy How can the people confront the complex issues of the 21st century?Democracy specifies a set of procedures for making decisions, but it does not guarantee the wisdom of the outcomes; they are not always rational, equitable, or wise.How do democracies deal with the potential for conflict between majority rule and individual freedom and/or minority rights?
19Political Culture and Participation The Civic Culture?legitimacydrop in participation and trustsocial capitaltolerance
20What is civil society?Perhaps the simplest way to see civil society is as a “third sector,” distinct from government and business. In this view, civil society refers essentially to the so-called “intermediary institutions” such as professional associations, religious groups, labor unions, and citizen advocacy organizations that give voice to various sectors of society and enrich public participation in democracies.(Civil Society International)
21What is civil society?In the U.S. context, all political parties, interest groups, Rotary Clubs, congregations, corporations, media outlets, unions, teams, business associations, professional groups, neighborhood associations, and bowling leagues people belong to are parts of civil society. Combine that with the behavioral standards for tolerance and individual freedom and you have a general idea of what is most often meant by civil society in the west. … Political scientists study these civic organizations as interest groups. But the groups are also elements of the political culture – places where people learn to participate, learn how to “play by the rules,” and learn how the system works. (College Board AP Central)
22Civil Society & Social Capital Civil society is based on social capitalSocial capital is a series of norms in a group or society related to things likeHonestyThe keeping of commitmentsReliable performance of dutiesReciprocityThese norms promote cooperation between two or more individuals
23Political Culture and Participation Political Parties and Electionssocial democratic partiesliberal or radical partiesChristian democratic and secular conservative partiesCatch-all Parties – appeals to the center
25Political PartiesMost parties had their roots in the cleavages left by the four historical transformationParties – left to rightCommunists, social democrats, liberals, Christian Democrats, secular conservativesOther – regional, environmental, anti-immigrant, etc.
26Ideologies & Vocabulary Socialism – “A variety of beliefs in the public ownership of the means of production and an egalitarian distribution of wealth.” (Hauss)Social democracy – “Philosophy that rejects revolution and prefers moderate socialistic and other egalitarian reforms enacted through the parliamentary process.
27Ideologies & Vocabulary Liberalism – An ideology that believes that the most important goal of politics is to help individuals develop their capacities to the fullest. To this end, people should be regulated and aided by governments as little as possible, so that they will learn from the experience of being responsible for their own decisions.“That government is best which governs least”
28Ideologies and Vocabulary American Liberalism – a variant of classical liberalism called social liberalismSocial liberalism means active government intervention in the economy and society for the purpose of promoting economic growth, community welfare, and social justice.Particularly concerned to make people equal & it is relatively willing to entrust government with power in order to bring this aboutConcerned with maintaining freedom of expression
29Ideologies and Vocabulary Conservatism – an ideology that believes that the most important goal of politics is to create stable communities based on a hierarchy of power, in which leaders and followers have reciprocal responsibilities and obligations.Conservatives are not suspicious of power and do not seek to limit the power of the state.The point is to insure that power should be in the hands of a traditional class of rulers.
30Ideologies & Vocabulary American conservatism – a variant of classical liberalismIt is particularly suspicious of government intervention to make people more equal but is often willing to entrust government with power in order to maintain codes of moral behavior.
33Catch-all PartiesResult of economic growth + expansion of the welfare state + cold war politicsCenter-based parties that tried to appeal to all votersMovement away from ideological appeals
34Political Culture and Participation New DivisionsGender : “gender gaps” in votingPost-industrialPost-materialist: focus on higher-order values such as job and personel satisfaction, self-actualization, moral issues & concerns, environmental issuesReflects relatively affluent voters
35Political Culture and Participation Realignment?Interest GroupsPolitical Protest
36VisualsNote distribution of parties and percentage of vote for parties in Tables 2.5 & 2.6 (Hauss page 41)
37The Democratic State Presidential and Parliamentary Systems separation of powerscabinet responsibilitycoalition government
42Public Policy The Interventionist State basic health care subsidized or free education at all levelsunemployment compensationpensions and programs for seniorsForeign Policy
43Feedback greater access to information and opinion assessment of information more importantcompetition between information and entertainment
44Conclusion: The Worst Form of Government Except for All the Others balance between governors and governedbalance between political world and rest of societybalance between unbridled capitalism and the interests of those who do not benefit (much) from itbalance between personal freedom and the need to maintain order and forge coherent public policy
45Learning ObjectivesAfter mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to:Gain knowledge of democracy as a political system.Become aware of the latest electoral results and their impact on political realities in the USA, Great Britain, France and Germany.Understand concepts and criteria of democracy, such as rights, elections, the rule of law, civil society and capitalism in the free market.Define liberal and liberalism.Describe and define the origins of the democratic state empowered by the evolution of political thoughts on democracy.Differentiate between philosophical positions of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.Recognize the process of democracy buildingUnderstand the challenges of democratization.Define and explain legitimacy and the process of political legitimization.Comprehend the role of political parties in political system.Identify different political ideologies and recognize the difference between left and right political ideologies and parties.
46Learning ObjectivesClassify leading political parties in France, Germany and Great Britain. Understand political positions of Liberals, Radicals, Social Democrats and Christian Democrats.Define catch-all political parties.Understand postindustrialism and post materialism and their affect on the development of the political system.Recognize mechanisms of party dealignment and realignment.Describe interests groups and understand factors contributing to the political protest.Recognize differences between presidential and parliamentarian forms of government and their impact of government formation, duration, stability and effectiveness.Define cabinet responsibility and vote of confidence in parliamentarian systems.Recognize the role of bureaucracy. Define the “law of iron triangle.”Describe the process of public policy formation and implementation.Define the interventionist state.Understand challenges of economically liberalized democratic state.Describe the impact of foreign policy on international relations.Recognize balances that democratic states should achieve to be more effective and efficient.
47Four Elections United States 2004 Great Britain 2005 France 2007 Germany 2005
48Four Elections Common and Not So-Common Themes Elections determine who governsElections are not about basic principlesDissimilaritiesElectoral systems – direct, indirect, proportional, pluralitySeparation of powers and fusion of powers
49Thinking About Democracy Key QuestionsWhy did democracy emerge in these countries?Why did democracy become so remarkably durable in the second half of the 20th century?Why is there so much debate about public policy in the industrialized democracies in the first years of the 21st century?why has that debate not gone one step farther and led many people to question their regimes or democracy itself?