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Chapter 2: The Industrialized Democracies

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1 Chapter 2: The Industrialized Democracies

2 Features of Industrialized Democracies
Representative systems of government based on regular, fair, secret and competitive elections Well-defined, consistent, and predictable political institutions and processes A high degree of public loyalty to the state Protection of individual rights under the law

3 Features, continued A variety of institutionalized forms of political participation and representation, including multiple political parties with a variety of platforms. A belief in human equality An active, effective, and protected opposition and respect for freedom of speech

4 Features, continued Postindustrial, wealthy and free-market economic systems based mainly on services and industry, driving the world’s biggest multinational corporations High levels of urbanization, with advanced infrastructure Advanced technology Significant regional & global influence

5 Features, continued A relatively high quality of life when measured by the provision of education, health care, and other basic services High ratings on the Freedom House, Economic Freedom, and Human Development indexes


7 Thinking About Democracy
The Basics Rights Competitive elections The Rule of Law Civil Society and Civic Culture Capitalism and Affluence Which countries are democracies by those criteria?

8 What Political Institutions Does Large-Scale Democracy Require?
1. Elected Officials 2. Free, fair, and frequent elections 3. Freedom of expression 4. Alternative sources of information 5. Associational autonomy 6. Inclusive citizenship From Robert A. Dahl, Political Science Quarterly, Summer 2005

9 Why the Institutions Are Necessary
Institutions Democratic values / criteria 1. Elected representatives Effective participation Control of the agenda 2. Fair, free & frequent elections Voting equality 3. Freedom of Expression Effective participation Enlightened understanding

10 Why the Institutions Are Necessary
4. Alternative information Effective participation Enlightened understanding Control of the agenda 5. Associational autonomy Effective participation 6. Inclusive citizenship Full inclusion

11 Varieties of Democracy
Consolidated Called “substantive democracy” in AP briefing paper Transitional Called “procedural democracy” in AP briefing paper

12 Consolidated Democracy
Relative consistent adherence to all of the democratic principles and values Beyond free, competitive elections with universal suffrage Freedom of the press = multiple sources of information Freedom of organization and robust civil society Equal treatment of minorities

13 Transitional Democracy
Facades of democratic institutions Informal practices violate the principles of democracy Democratic forms of governance coexist with a persistence of authoritarian elements (“hybrids”) Corruption, control of media, no independent judiciary, opposition undermined including use of intimidation and violence

14 Democratization Process of transformation From nondemocratic to
Transitional/procedural democracy to Consolidated/substantive democracy

15 The Origins of the Democratic State
Evolution of democratic thought Hobbes Laissez-faire Locke Suffrage


17 The Origins of the Democratic State
Building Democracies the creation of the state itself the role of religion in society and government the development of pressures for democracy the industrial revolution complications of cleavages Cold War as solidifier of strong democracies

18 Challenges for Democracy
How can the people confront the complex issues of the 21st century? Democracy specifies a set of procedures for making decisions, but it does not guarantee the wisdom of the outcomes; they are not always rational, equitable, or wise. How do democracies deal with the potential for conflict between majority rule and individual freedom and/or minority rights?

19 Political Culture and Participation
The Civic Culture? legitimacy drop in participation and trust social capital tolerance

20 What is civil society? Perhaps the simplest way to see civil society is as a “third sector,” distinct from government and business. In this view, civil society refers essentially to the so-called “intermediary institutions” such as professional associations, religious groups, labor unions, and citizen advocacy organizations that give voice to various sectors of society and enrich public participation in democracies. (Civil Society International)

21 What is civil society? In the U.S. context, all political parties, interest groups, Rotary Clubs, congregations, corporations, media outlets, unions, teams, business associations, professional groups, neighborhood associations, and bowling leagues people belong to are parts of civil society. Combine that with the behavioral standards for tolerance and individual freedom and you have a general idea of what is most often meant by civil society in the west. … Political scientists study these civic organizations as interest groups. But the groups are also elements of the political culture – places where people learn to participate, learn how to “play by the rules,” and learn how the system works. (College Board AP Central)

22 Civil Society & Social Capital
Civil society is based on social capital Social capital is a series of norms in a group or society related to things like Honesty The keeping of commitments Reliable performance of duties Reciprocity These norms promote cooperation between two or more individuals

23 Political Culture and Participation
Political Parties and Elections social democratic parties liberal or radical parties Christian democratic and secular conservative parties Catch-all Parties – appeals to the center


25 Political Parties Most parties had their roots in the cleavages left by the four historical transformation Parties – left to right Communists, social democrats, liberals, Christian Democrats, secular conservatives Other – regional, environmental, anti-immigrant, etc.

26 Ideologies & Vocabulary
Socialism – “A variety of beliefs in the public ownership of the means of production and an egalitarian distribution of wealth.” (Hauss) Social democracy – “Philosophy that rejects revolution and prefers moderate socialistic and other egalitarian reforms enacted through the parliamentary process.

27 Ideologies & Vocabulary
Liberalism – An ideology that believes that the most important goal of politics is to help individuals develop their capacities to the fullest. To this end, people should be regulated and aided by governments as little as possible, so that they will learn from the experience of being responsible for their own decisions. “That government is best which governs least”

28 Ideologies and Vocabulary
American Liberalism – a variant of classical liberalism called social liberalism Social liberalism means active government intervention in the economy and society for the purpose of promoting economic growth, community welfare, and social justice. Particularly concerned to make people equal & it is relatively willing to entrust government with power in order to bring this about Concerned with maintaining freedom of expression

29 Ideologies and Vocabulary
Conservatism – an ideology that believes that the most important goal of politics is to create stable communities based on a hierarchy of power, in which leaders and followers have reciprocal responsibilities and obligations. Conservatives are not suspicious of power and do not seek to limit the power of the state. The point is to insure that power should be in the hands of a traditional class of rulers.

30 Ideologies & Vocabulary
American conservatism – a variant of classical liberalism It is particularly suspicious of government intervention to make people more equal but is often willing to entrust government with power in order to maintain codes of moral behavior.



33 Catch-all Parties Result of economic growth + expansion of the welfare state + cold war politics Center-based parties that tried to appeal to all voters Movement away from ideological appeals

34 Political Culture and Participation
New Divisions Gender : “gender gaps” in voting Post-industrial Post-materialist: focus on higher-order values such as job and personel satisfaction, self-actualization, moral issues & concerns, environmental issues Reflects relatively affluent voters

35 Political Culture and Participation
Realignment? Interest Groups Political Protest

36 Visuals Note distribution of parties and percentage of vote for parties in Tables 2.5 & 2.6 (Hauss page 41)

37 The Democratic State Presidential and Parliamentary Systems
separation of powers cabinet responsibility coalition government



40 The Democratic State The Rest of the State bureaucracy judiciary


42 Public Policy The Interventionist State basic health care
subsidized or free education at all levels unemployment compensation pensions and programs for seniors Foreign Policy

43 Feedback greater access to information and opinion
assessment of information more important competition between information and entertainment

44 Conclusion: The Worst Form of Government Except for All the Others
balance between governors and governed balance between political world and rest of society balance between unbridled capitalism and the interests of those who do not benefit (much) from it balance between personal freedom and the need to maintain order and forge coherent public policy

45 Learning Objectives After mastering the concepts presented in this chapter, you will be able to: Gain knowledge of democracy as a political system. Become aware of the latest electoral results and their impact on political realities in the USA, Great Britain, France and Germany. Understand concepts and criteria of democracy, such as rights, elections, the rule of law, civil society and capitalism in the free market. Define liberal and liberalism. Describe and define the origins of the democratic state empowered by the evolution of political thoughts on democracy. Differentiate between philosophical positions of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Recognize the process of democracy building Understand the challenges of democratization. Define and explain legitimacy and the process of political legitimization. Comprehend the role of political parties in political system. Identify different political ideologies and recognize the difference between left and right political ideologies and parties.

46 Learning Objectives Classify leading political parties in France, Germany and Great Britain. Understand political positions of Liberals, Radicals, Social Democrats and Christian Democrats. Define catch-all political parties. Understand postindustrialism and post materialism and their affect on the development of the political system. Recognize mechanisms of party dealignment and realignment. Describe interests groups and understand factors contributing to the political protest. Recognize differences between presidential and parliamentarian forms of government and their impact of government formation, duration, stability and effectiveness. Define cabinet responsibility and vote of confidence in parliamentarian systems. Recognize the role of bureaucracy. Define the “law of iron triangle.” Describe the process of public policy formation and implementation. Define the interventionist state. Understand challenges of economically liberalized democratic state. Describe the impact of foreign policy on international relations. Recognize balances that democratic states should achieve to be more effective and efficient.

47 Four Elections United States 2004 Great Britain 2005 France 2007
Germany 2005

48 Four Elections Common and Not So-Common Themes
Elections determine who governs Elections are not about basic principles Dissimilarities Electoral systems – direct, indirect, proportional, plurality Separation of powers and fusion of powers

49 Thinking About Democracy
Key Questions Why did democracy emerge in these countries? Why did democracy become so remarkably durable in the second half of the 20th century? Why is there so much debate about public policy in the industrialized democracies in the first years of the 21st century? why has that debate not gone one step farther and led many people to question their regimes or democracy itself?




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