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Chapter One: The Democratic Republic 1. Learning Objectives Understand why governments exist. Be familiar with and use appropriately the terms: politics,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter One: The Democratic Republic 1. Learning Objectives Understand why governments exist. Be familiar with and use appropriately the terms: politics,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter One: The Democratic Republic 1

2 Learning Objectives Understand why governments exist. Be familiar with and use appropriately the terms: politics, government, and institutions. Understand the concepts of order (or security) and liberty. Understand the concepts of authority and legitimacy. 2

3 Learning Objectives Briefly describe several forms of government (totalitarianism, authoritarian regime, aristocracy, democracy). Understand the difference between direct democracy on the one hand and a democratic republic (a representative democracy) on the other. Explain why the United States is a democratic republic. 3

4 Learning Objectives Explain the key features of democracies (universal suffrage, consent of the governed, majority rule, limited government). Describe competing theories of how the U. S. democracy works (majoritarianism, elite theories, and pluralism). Describe the trade-off between order and liberty, and between equality and liberty (in the form of property). 4

5 Learning Objectives Define the concept of ideology and explain the dominant ideologies in the United States (liberalism and conservatism). Distinguish between economic liberalism and conservatism and cultural liberalism and conservatism. Provide some distinguishing characteristics of selected totalitarian ideologies, specifically communism, fascism, and radical Islamism. 5

6 Learning Objectives Understand current demographic trends in the United States and assess the possible impacts of these changes on the political system. Identify and explain the significance of the cultural values and ideologies that support the American political system. Evaluate the challenges to the U.S. system posed by globalization and environmental change. 6

7 Politics and Government What is Politics?  Process of resolving conflicts  Struggle over power or influence within an organization or informal groups 7

8 Politics and Government What Is Government?  Institution that resolves conflicts  Institution that allocates benefits and privileges 8

9 Why Is Government Necessary? Security Liberty Authority Legitimacy 9

10 Why Choose Democracy? Types of Regimes  Totalitarian  Authoritarian  Oligarchy  Democracy  Anarchy 10

11 Why Choose Democracy? Direct Democracy as a Model  Political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives.  Attained most easily in small political communities 11

12 Why Choose Democracy? Direct Democracy Today  Initiative  Referendum  Recall  Teledemocracy 12

13 Why Choose Democracy? Dangers of Direct Democracy  Although the founders believed in government based on the consent of the people, they were concerned about mob rule.  Devised institutions to filter the popular will through elected elites. 13

14 Why Choose Democracy? Republic: sovereignty rests with the people. Democratic republic: power rests with the people, but policy decisions are made by elected officials. 14

15 Why Choose Democracy? Principles of Democratic Government  Universal suffrage  Majority rule  Free and competitive elections  Limited government based on a constitution 15

16 Who Really Rules in America? Theories About “Who Really Rules in America?”  Majoritarian Theory: government ought to do what the majority wants.  Elite Theory: small cohesive group makes nearly all political decisions.  Pluralist Theory: various groups compete for power. 16

17 Fundamental Values What Is Political Culture? Political culture is a set of ideas, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics that are shared by all citizens. 17

18 Fundamental Values What Is Political Socialization? Political socialization is the process by which beliefs and values are transmitted to new immigrants and children. 18

19 Fundamental Values Fundamental Political Values  Individual freedom  Security  Equality  Order  Security  Property 19

20 Fundamental Values 20

21 Political Ideologies What Is Political Ideology? A political ideology is a set of beliefs about politics that provides a well-organized theory about the goals for a society. 21

22 Political Ideologies 22

23 Political Ideologies 23

24 Political Ideologies Liberalism: set of beliefs that maintains that government should improve people’s lives, support civil rights, and tolerate social change. Conservatism: set of beliefs that maintains that government should have a limited role in helping people, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change. 24

25 The Challenge of Change Demographic Changes: Aging population Low birthrate Ethnic changes: growth of Hispanic population 25

26 The Challenge of Change 26

27 The Challenge of Change 27

28 The Challenge of Change Globalization: Impacts employment Impacts flow of goods and people Diminishes power of government 28

29 The Challenge of Change Environmental Changes: Global warming Pandemics Pollution 29

30 Web Links U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services information about the rules and requirements for immigration and citizenship: U.S. Government access to federal government offices and agencies: 30

31 What If…Citizens Were Required to Vote? In the 2008 election, only 30% of the voting age population elected Barack Obama. Groups that are less likely to vote include younger voters, less-educated citizens, and those who are economically disadvantaged. Mandatory voting could lead to policies that help all citizens. 31

32 What If…Citizens Were Required to Vote?? Unintended consequences of mandatory voting: Increase in uninformed voters Voting would not be considered voluntary 32


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