2 Learning Objectives Understand why governments exist. Be familiar with and use appropriately the terms: politics, government, and institutions.Understand the concepts of order (or security) and liberty.Understand the concepts of authority and legitimacy.
3 Learning ObjectivesBriefly describe several forms of government (totalitarianism, authoritarian regime, aristocracy, democracy).Understand the difference between direct democracy on the one hand and a democratic republic (a representative democracy) on the other.Explain why the United States is a democratic republic.
4 Learning ObjectivesExplain the key features of democracies (universal suffrage, consent of the governed, majority rule, limited government).Describe competing theories of how the U. S. democracy works (majoritarianism, elite theories, and pluralism).Describe the trade-off between order and liberty, and between equality and liberty (in the form of property).
5 Learning ObjectivesDefine the concept of ideology and explain the dominant ideologies in the United States (liberalism and conservatism).Distinguish between economic liberalism and conservatism and cultural liberalism and conservatism. Provide some distinguishing characteristics of selected totalitarian ideologies, specifically communism, fascism, and radical Islamism.
6 Learning ObjectivesUnderstand current demographic trends in the United States and assess the possible impacts of these changes on the political system.Identify and explain the significance of the cultural values and ideologies that support the American political system.Evaluate the challenges to the U.S. system posed by globalization and environmental change.
7 Politics and Government What is Politics?Process of resolving conflictsStruggle over power or influence within an organization or informal groups
8 Politics and Government What Is Government?Institution that resolves conflictsInstitution that allocates benefits and privileges
9 Why Is Government Necessary? SecurityLibertyAuthorityLegitimacy
10 Why Choose Democracy? Types of Regimes Totalitarian Authoritarian OligarchyDemocracyAnarchy
11 Why Choose Democracy? Direct Democracy as a Model Political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives.Attained most easily in small political communities
12 Why Choose Democracy? Direct Democracy Today Initiative Referendum RecallTeledemocracyInitiative—a procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.Referendum—an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval.Recall—a procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from state office before his or her term has expired.Teledemocracy—use of the Internet by the people to contact representatives, by representatives to provide information and services to constituents, and by the states to register voters.
13 Why Choose Democracy? Dangers of Direct Democracy Although the founders believed in government based on the consent of the people, they were concerned about mob rule.Devised institutions to filter the popular will through elected elites.
14 Why Choose Democracy? Republic: sovereignty rests with the people. Democratic republic: power rests with the people, but policy decisions are made by elected officials.
15 Why Choose Democracy? Principles of Democratic Government Universal suffrageMajority ruleFree and competitive electionsLimited government based on a constitution
16 Who Really Rules in America? Theories About “Who Really Rules in America?”Majoritarian Theory: government ought to do what the majority wants.Elite Theory: small cohesive group makes nearly all political decisions.Pluralist Theory: various groups compete for power.
17 Fundamental Values What Is Political Culture? Political culture is a set of ideas, values, and ways of thinking about government and politics that are shared by all citizens.
18 Fundamental Values What Is Political Socialization? Political socialization is the process by which beliefs and values are transmitted to new immigrants and children.
19 Fundamental Values Fundamental Political Values Individual freedom SecurityEqualityOrderProperty
24 Political IdeologiesLiberalism: set of beliefs that maintains that government should improve people’s lives, support civil rights, and tolerate social change.Conservatism: set of beliefs that maintains that government should have a limited role in helping people, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change.
25 The Challenge of Change Demographic Changes:Aging populationLow birthrateEthnic changes: growth of Hispanic population
28 The Challenge of Change Globalization:Impacts employmentImpacts flow of goods and peopleDiminishes power of government
29 The Challenge of Change Environmental Changes:Global warmingPandemicsPollution
30 Web LinksU.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services information about the rules and requirements for immigration and citizenship: U.S. Governmentaccess to federal government offices and agencies:
31 What If…Citizens Were Required to Vote? In the 2008 election, only 30% of the voting age population elected Barack Obama.Groups that are less likely to vote include younger voters, less-educated citizens, and those who are economically disadvantaged.Mandatory voting could lead to policies that help all citizens.
32 What If…Citizens Were Required to Vote?? Unintended consequences of mandatory voting:Increase in uninformed votersVoting would not be considered voluntaryFOR CRITICAL ANALYSIS:1. Do you agree with the concept that every American should be required to cast a ballot? Why or why not?2. If citizens were required to vote, should they also be required to be well informed on the candidates and the issues? Explain your answer.3. What are possible implications of such a change to the electoral system? Would this accomplish the reform’s goals or create unintended consequences?